Chapter Six - Long Term Memory (Structure) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Six - Long Term Memory (Structure) Deck (76):
1

What is long term memory?

-"archive" of information about past events + knowledge learned
-works closely with WM

2

How long does storage of LTM stretch?

-few moments ago to as far back as one can remember

3

What did Murdoch study?

-distinction between STM and LTM using serial position curve

4

What is the primacy effect?

-better at remembering words at beginning of list
-rehearsal
-transfer to LTM
-less rehearsal for later words

5

What is the recency effect?

-better at remembering words at end of list
-lack of interference
-words still in STM

6

How was the recency effect tested?

-second experimental group counted backwards for 30 seconds
-prevented rehearsal, info lost from STM

7

What is another way to distinguish between LTM + STM?

-compare the way info is coded by the two systems

8

What is coding?

-form in which stimuli are represented

9

What is the physiological approach to coding?

-how a stimulus represented by firing of neurons

10

What is the mental approach to coding?

-how stimulus is represented in the mind

11

What is visual coding? Compare STM and LTM

-visual image
STM: "recalling visual patterns"
LTM: when visualizing person from the past

12

What is auditory coding? Compare STM and LTM

-form of a sound
STM: "phonological similarity effect"
LTM: "hearing" beginning of next song on a playlist

13

How was semantic encoding in STM tested? (Wickens)

-subjects presented with either words from a or b
-listen to 3 words
-counted backwards for 15 s.
-recalled

14

What is proactive interference?

-interference enhanced by meaning of words

15

What did the second group do in the Wickens ex?

-on Trial 4, words from other category were presented to them
-release form proactive interference

16

What does the Wickens ex. tell us about coding in STM?

-release from proactive interference depnds on words' categories
-categories involves meaning of words
-semantic coding in STM

17

What is recognition memory?

identification of a previously encountered stimulus

18

What did Sachs study?

-subjects listened to tape recording of a passage
-recognition memory then measured
-Did they remember exact wording or general meaning?

19

What is recognition?

-the to-be-remembered info presented along with distractors
-subject must distinguish new form old
EX: MC questions

20

What is recall?

-information from experimenter
-experimenter simply says "remember"
EX: fill in the blank exam questions

21

What are 4 findings of the Sachs's passage experiment?

1. good at detecting changes in meaning
2. not good at detecting changes in sentence form
3. ability to detect any change declines over time
4. decline is more for syntactic changes

22

What is the hippocampus responsible for?

-one's ability to encode new long-term memories

23

Who are 3 case studies important in the neuropsychology of memory?

1. HM (no hippocampus)
2. Clive Wearing (parts of temporal lobe destroyed)
3. KF (damage to parietal lobe)

24

What are lesion studies?

-patient HM + other dense amnesiacs have symptom profile
-suggesting that STM + LTM are independent

25

What did lesion studies reveal impairments in?

-acquiring new episodic + semantic memories (explicit LTM encoding)
-primacy in free recall (explicit LTM encoding)

26

What were spared abilities from lesion studies?

1. recall events prior to resection
2. learn new motor skills
3. digit span
4. peterson task
4. recency in free recall

27

What did patient KF show?

-opposite pattern of memory problems
-double dissociation between STM and LTM

28

What did KF show impairments in? spared ability?

1. peterson task
2. recency in free recall
3. reduced digit span
spared ability: LTM

29

Double Dissociation summary of KF and HM

KF: impaired STM, normal LTM
HM: normal STM, impaired LTM

30

What did the Ranganath + D'Esposito experiment show about faces/memory?

-larger brain activity in novel faces (WM)
-familiar faces also activate hippocampus bc LTM
-proves LTM is only LTM
-Hippocampus is both LTM and WM

31

What did Tulving propose about episodic + semantic memory?

handled different types of information

32

What are 3 characteristics of episodic memory?

1. memory for specific instance or episode
2. involves mental time travel
3. no guarantee of accuracy

33

What are 2 characteristics of semantic memory?

1. memory for conceptual information
2. does not involve mental time travel

34

Why are autobiographical memories often slow?

they have to be reconstructed

35

How did Barclay + Wellman study autobiographical memories?

-grad students record everyday events for 4 months
-recognition test (5 times over 2.5 yrs)
-used originals + foils

36

What were the results of Barclay + Wellman's study?

-recognition of duplications 94%
-accepted 50% of foils that changed info + 23% of novel foils
-got worse over time

37

What does semantic memory include?

1. general world knowledge
2. memory for facts

38

Semantic memory does not require ____ or ____

time or place

39

Initially new facts may contain____, but will eventually become _____ over time

episodic content, sourceless

40

How did Damasio study how info is organized in the semantic memory?

-object naming task given to healthy subjects

41

What were the results of Damasio's study?

-PET data
-different areas active if objects were famous faces, animals, or tools
-people with damage in spec. areas had problems naming associated categories of items

42

Who was patient KC?

-no episodic memory (no longer relive any past events)
-functional semantic memory (aware brother died 2 yrs ago, no personal experiences with him)

43

Who was the Italian Woman case study?

-intact episodic memory (able to remember events in her life)
-no semantic memory (trouble remembering meaning of words)

44

What was wrong with the Italian Woman?

-attack of encephalitis
-impaired semantic memory
-diagnosed via the clock test

45

What is evidence that there is a distinction between episodic + semantic memories?

-brain-imaging shows retrieving episodic + semantic memories activate different areas of the brain

46

What 2 tasks show the comparison between the pattern of brain activation between episodic + semantic memory?

1. listening to their own audio-taped diaries
2. facts drawn from their semantic knowledge

47

What brain region is activated when listening to one's own audio-taped diaries?

-more frontal regions

48

What brain region is activated when hearing facts drawn from their semantic knowledge?

-more posterior regions (considerable overlap)

49

How does knowledge affect experience?

-semantic memory guides experience by influencing episodic memories

50

How can episodic memories be lost?

-acquiring knowledge may start as episodic
-fade to semantic

51

semantic memory can be enhanced if associated with ______

episodic

52

What is autobiographical memory?

-memory of specific experiences
-includes semantic + episodic

53

What is personal semantic memory?

-semantic memories that have personal significance

54

How can we influence what we experience(episodic)?

by determining what we attend to

55

What is familiarity?

-associated with semantic memory
-not associated with circumstances under which memory was acquired

56

What is recollection?

-associated with episodic memory
-details about what was happening when knowledge was acquired

57

What is the effect of time on encoding?

-forgetting increases with longer intervals from the original encoding

58

What is the remember/know procedure?

-remember: if stimulus is familiar + circumstance which it was encountered (episodic)
-know: if stimulus if familiar but don't remembering experiencing it earlier (semantic)
-Don't: remember the stimulus at all

59

How is knowledge that makes up semantic memories initially attained?

-through personal experiences
-basis of episodic experiences
-memory of these experiences fade, semantic memories remain

60

What is the case study evidence of a connection between ability to remember past + ability to create future scenarios?

-KC not able to describe personal events that might happen in future
-DB couldn't recall past events or events that had to do with him (could imagine what might happen in politics)

61

What is brain imaging evidence of the connection between ability to remember past + create future scenarios?

-activation of same areas in brain when subjects ask to think about past + imagine future

62

What is the constructive episodic stimulation hypothesis?

-episodic memories are extracted + recombined
-construct simulations of future events

63

What is implicit/non-declaritive memory?

-memory that unconsciously influences behavior
-when learning from ex. is not accompanied by conscious remembering
-procedural

64

What is priming?

when previous experience changes response without conscious awareness

65

What is explicit/declarative memory?

-conscious memory
episodic: personal
events/episodes
semantic: facts, knowledge

66

What is skill memory?

-memory for actions
-no memory of where/when learned
-perform procedures without being consciously aware of how to do them

67

Can people who cannot form new LTMs still learn new skills?

-yes

68

What are case study examples of people who cannot form new LTMs learning new skills?

1. Clive Wearing
2. HM
3. KC

69

What is repetition priming?

presentation of one stimulus affects performance on that stimulus when it is presented again

70

What was the Graf and coworkers experiment?

-tested patients with amnesia
-ensure that people don't remember presentation of priming stimulus

71

What are the 3 test groups in the Graf/coworkers experiment?

1. amensia patients with Korsakof's syndrome
-Patients without amnesia being treated for alcoholism
3. Patients without amnesia who had no history of alcoholism

72

What were the 2 ways in which the participants were tested in the Graf/coworkers experiment?

1. asked to recall words they had read
2. word completion test, test of implicit memory

73

What is the Perfect + Askew experiment?

-subjects asked to scan several magazines
-test of implicit memory in everyday experience

74

What was the result of the Perfect + Askew test?

-more likely to rate advertisement they had seen in passing higher
-implications for advertisements

75

What is the propaganda effect

-more likely to rate statements read/heard before as being true
-simply because of previous exposure

76

How is classical conditioning related to implicit memory?

-pairing a neutral stimulus with a reflexive response
EX: not remembering name of familiar person, but having pos/neg feelings about them