Chapter Five - Short Term + Working Memory Flashcards Preview

PSYC 301L > Chapter Five - Short Term + Working Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter Five - Short Term + Working Memory Deck (117):
1

what is memory?

processes involve in retaining, retrieving, using info about stimuli, images, events, ideas + skills

2

____ affects the present and possibly _____

past, future

3

memory

active system that stores, organizes, alters, recovers info

4

What is encoding?

converting info into a usable form for storage

5

What is storage?

holding info in memory

6

What is retrieval?

taking memories out of storage

7

What is sensory memory?

-storing exact copy of incoming info for less than a second
-first stage of memory

8

What is an icon?

fleeting mental image/visual rep.

9

What is an echo?

-after sound is heard
-brief continuation of sound in auditory system

10

what is short term memory?

-second stage of memory
-stores small about of info briefly
-sensitive to interruption/interference

11

What is the span of short term memory?

-limited to holding ~7 bits of info

12

What is a chunk?

meaningful units of info in memory

13

What is recoding?

reorganizing or modifying information in STM

14

What is maintenance Rehearsal

reaping information silently to prolong its presence in STM

15

What is elaborative rehearsal?

-links new info with existing memories + knowledge in LTM

16

What is elaborative rehearsal used for?

transferring STM information into LTM

17

What are 4 characteristics of LTM?

1. storing info relatively permanently
2. stored on basis of meaning + importance
3. more passive form of storage than WM
4. unlimited capacity

18

What are the 2 main types of long term memory?

1. explicit (declarative) memory (facts)
2. implicit (procedural) memory (skills)

19

What are 2 types of explicit memory?

1. semantic (impersonal facts + everyday knowledge)
2. episodic (personal experiences linked with specific times and places

20

What is implicit memory?

-long term memories of conditioned responses + learned skills (eg driving)

21

What are the 3 types of memory in the Modal Model of Memory?

1. sensory
2. short term
3. long term

22

what is sensory memory?

-initial stage
-holds all incoming info for seconds/fractions of a second

23

What is short term memory?

-holds 5-7 items for 15-20 seconds

24

What is long term memory?

-holds large amount of info for years-decades

25

What are the stages of the modal model of memory?

1. input
2. sensory memory
3. short term memory
rehearsal, output
4. long term memory (cycles back to short term)

26

What are control processes? example?

-active processes that can be controlled by the person
-used to make stimulus more memorable
-help focus on spec. stimuli
EX: maintenance rehearsal

27

What is maintenance rehearsal?

-repeating a stimulus over and over

28

What happens to info in the sensory memory?

-info decays very quickly

29

What is persistence of vision?

-retention of perception of light
EX: sparkler's trail of light
Frames in film

30

What are 3 characteristics of sensory memory?

1. collects info
2. holds info for initial processing
3. fills in the blank

31

What did Sperling test in 1960? How?

-measured capacity + duration of sensory memory
-array of letters flashed quickly on screen
-participants asked to report as many as possible

32

What is the whole report method?

-participants asked to report as many as could be seen

33

What is the partial report method?

-after viewing items participants heard tone
-told them which row of letters to report

34

What is the delayed partial report method?

-same as partial report
-but with short delay between display of letters + tone

35

Order these in terms of percentage remembered: whole, partial, delayed

1. partial (82%)
2. whole (37.5%)
3. delay (25%)

36

What was Sperling ultimately studying?

visual sensory memory

37

What did people think before Sperling's study?

-visual sensory memory could only hold 4-5 items (full report cond.)

38

What were the 2 major findings of Sperling's ex.?

-true that people can only report 4-5 items before memory decays
-sensory memory actually encodes the whole scene

39

What is the ultimate conclusion of Sperling's experiment?

-sensory memory has a large capacity, but fast decay

40

What did Sperling find about the timing of decay?

-within just 1 second, most sensory memory decays
-leaving only what was moved to STM via attention

41

What is iconic memory?

-brief sensory memory of things that we see
-persistence of vision

42

What is echoic memory?

-brief sensory memory of things that we hear
-persistence of sound

43

What are some functions of STM?

-understand sentences
-do arithmetic
-dial phone number
-navigate
-know where we are/what we are doing right now

44

Who is Clive Wearing?

-lives without short term memory
-only has procedural LTM

45

What is duration?

how long things stay in memory

46

What is capcity?

how many things fit in memory at a time

47

_____ extends duration, while ____ extends capacity

rehearsal, chunking

48

What task was used to test the duration of short term memory/

Brown/Peterson Task

49

What are the 4 steps of the Brown/Peterson Task?

1. three letters + one number given
2. count backward from number by 3s
3. 3-18s. delay (while counting backward)
4. recall three letters

50

What is the result of the Brown/Peterson Task?

-longer the time goes by, the more you forget
-percentage of letters recalled decreases with longer delays

51

What is also important to consider in the Brown/Peterson task?

-where in the series of trials the individual trail occurs
-recall of letters after long delays decreases as series of trials get longer

52

What was the ultimate conclusion of Brown/Peterson Task?

-memory trace vanished because of decay that occurred during passage of time

53

What is proactive interference?

-type of forgetting in STM
-what is already in STM affects ability to add new things
EX: native language makes it more difficult to learn new language

54

What are 2 factors that contribute to forgetting in the STM?

1. decay
2. interference

55

What is the effective duration of short term memory?

15-20 seconds

56

What are interference theories/

-forgetting not caused by mere passage of time
-caused by one memory competing with another/replacing

57

What are 2 types of interference?

1. retroactive interference
2. proactive interference

58

What is retroactive interference?

-new memory interferes with remembering old information
EX: new phone number interferes with ability to remember old phone number

59

What is proactive interference?

-old memory interferes with remembering new information
EX: memories of where you parked car past week interferes with ability to find car today

60

What is digit span?

-measure of capacities

61

What is the digit span test?

1. see list of single digit numbers
2. remember them
3. see "go," write them from memory in order
how many digits were in the longest row that you got completely right?

62

What did Luck and Vogel study?

-change detection to measure capacity of STM
-STM capacity ~4 items

63

What did Miller find about capacity?

people can remember 7+/-2
-digits
-words
-numbers
-phrases

64

What is chunking?

-combining smaller units into larger meaningful units
-improve capacity
-using LTM memories to organize info in STM

65

Who are Chase and Simon?

-found that chess players chunk info based on meaningful points within a game of chess

66

What did Ericsson find about chunking?

-trained college student with avg. memory to use chunking
-increased digit span from 7 to 79

67

What did Alvarez + Cavanaugh think?

-experimenters who suggested that memory capcity should be described in terms of "amount of information" rather than "number of items"

68

What was Alvarez + Cavanaugh's experiment?

-used colored squares + complex objects
-used change detection procedure

69

What did Alvarez + Cavanaugh find?

-ability to make same/different judgement depended on complexity of stimuli
(more complex = lower capacity)

70

What is working memory according to Baddeley and Hitch?

-similar concept to short term memory

71

What is working memory?

-limited capacity system for temporary storage/manipulation of info
-for complex tasks like comprehension, learning, reasoning

72

How does working memory differ from STM?

-STM holds info for brief period of time
EX: remembering phone number
-WM concerned with processing/manipulation of info that occurs during complex recognition
EX: remembering numbers while reading a paragraph

73

What is Attkinson + Shifrin's short term memory model?

-single component for all types of info
-mainly used for holding info for short time

74

What are the 3 components of Baddeley + Hitch's working memory model?

1. central executive
2. visuospatial sketchpad
3. phonological loopo

75

What is the phonological loop?

-holds verbal + auditory info

76

What are the 2 parts of the phonological loop?

1. phonological store: limited capacity, holds info for only a few seconds
2. articulatory rehearsal process: rehearsal that can keep items in phon. store from decaying

77

What is the visuospatial sketch pad?

-holds visual + spatial information

78

What is the central executive?

-pulls info from long-term memory
-coordinates other components
-directs + maintains attention

79

What are the stages of the Baddeley + Hitch WM model?

1. input
2. sensory memory
3. central executive
phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad
4. long term knowledge

80

What is the phonological similarity effect?

-letters/words that sound similar are confused
-not those that look similar

81

How did Conrad study the phonological similarity effect?

-participants saw target letters (quickly flashed)
-half of time letters were similar, half time they weren't
-participants wrote them down
-mistakes were made

82

What mistakes were made in Conrad's study?

-not likely to replace with something that looked like target (E for F)
-likely to replace with something that SOUNDED like target (E for B)

83

What was the point of the phonological similarity effect experiment?

-demonstrated that even though info was presented visually, people converted it to auditory
-phonological loop necessary for conversion (not just holding info)

84

What is the word-length effect?

-memory for lists of words is better for short words than long words
-takes longer to rehearse long words + produce them during recall

85

What is an example of the word-length effect?

-American children have longer digit spans than Welsh children because Welsh numbers take longer to pronounce

86

What is articulatory suppression?

-speaking interferes with rehearsal
-memory is reduced

87

What is the result of the articulatory suppression?

-if you speak while memorizing (keeps phonological loop busy)
-get worse at remembering
-other 2 effects disappear

88

What does the visuospatial sketch pad hold?

-visual + spatial info
-involved in process of visual imagery

89

What was Brooks's sentence experiment with the visuospatial sketch pad?

-sentence experiment
1. memorize sentence
2. indicate whether each word is/isn't a noun

90

What are the 2 conditions of Brooks's sentence experiment?

condition 1: indicate by speaking
condition 2: indicate by pointing

91

What are the results of the Brooks's sentence experiment?

-pointing was easier than speaking for the participants

92

What is the explanation to the results of the Brooks's experiment?

-phonological loop was busy processing sentence
-sketch pad was free

93

What was Brooks's F demo?

1. memorize shape (F)
2. indicate whether each corner is inside corner or outside corner
condition 1: speaking
condition 2: pointing

94

What were the results of the F demo?

-speaking easier than pointing
OPPOSITE of previous

95

What is the explanation to the F experiment?

-sketch pad was busy with info
-phonological loop was free

96

What is the point of Brooks's studies?

-tasks are easier when info being held in mind + the operation being performed on it involve different types of STM

97

What do Brooks's studies also imply?

-the two types of STM are somewhat independent
-separate capacities

98

What is visual imagery?

-creation of visual images in the mind
-in absence of a physical visual stimulus

99

What did Shepard study about the visuospatial sketch pad?

mental rotation

100

What did Kosslyn study about the visuospatial sketch pad?

-visual scanning

101

What is visual scanning?

-imagine picture
-focus on back of boat
-how many outboard motors (fast response)
-how many circular windows?
(slow response, further away form back)

102

What is WM set up to process?

-different types of information simultaneously

103

What does WM have trouble processing?

-similar types of info are presented at the same time

104

What are 4 functions of the central executive?

1. directing + maintaining attention
2. controls suppression of irrelevant info
3. coordinating sketchpad + phonological loop
4. performating calculations

105

What is preservation?

-repeatedly performing the same action/thought even if it is not achieving desired goal

106

What is episodic buffer?

-backup store that communicates with LTM and WM components

107

How does episodic buffer compare to phonological loop + visuospatial sketchpad?

-holds info longer
-greater capacity

108

What did Vogel study?

-determined participants' WM
-high capacity and low capacity WM group
-shown either simple or complex stimuli
-measured ERP responses

109

What were the results of Vogel's study?

-high-capacity participants were more efficient at ignoring the distractors

110

What part of the brain is responsible for processing incoming visual/auditory info?

-prefrontal cortex

111

What are 3 functions of the prefrontal cortex?

1. gets inputs from sensory areas
2. gets inputs from areas involved in action
3. connected to areas involved in long-term memory

112

What is known about monkeys without prefrontal cortices?

-monkeys without prefrontal cortex have difficulty holding info in WM

113

What is the delayed response task with monkeys?

-monkeys can remember location over a delay
-PFC removed, can't do it anymore

114

What did Funahashi study in terms of WM and the brain?

-single cell recordings from monkey's PFC during delay-response task

115

What happens to neurons when stimulus flashed in particular location + during delay?

-neurons responded
-information remains available via these neurons for as long as they continue firing

116

What have brain imaging shown about memory?

-PFC active when using WM

117

What other parts show activity in brain imaging during WM use?

-other areas in frontal lobe
-parietal lobe
-cerebellum
-oftentimes simultaneous