Chapter One - Introduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter One - Introduction Deck (57):
1

What is cognitive science?

-study of relationships among integration of cog. psychology, biology, anthropology, comp sci, linguistics, philosphy

2

What are 8 critical areas of research for cog science?

1. consciousness
2. intelligence
3. thinking
4. language
5. knowledge of representation
6. memory
7. learning
8. perception

3

What is cognitive psychology?

-branch of psychology
-scientific study of the mind

4

Cognition involves... (8)

1. perception
2. paying attention
3. remembering
4. distinguishing items in a category
5. visualizing
6. language
7. problem solving
8. reasoning + decision making

5

Why was it not possible to study the mind in the 1800s? (3)

-philosophers thought the mind couldn't study itself
-people did not associate cog. abilities with mind
-thought mind couldn't be measured

6

Who did one of first cognitive psych experiments in 1868 ?

Franciscus Donders

7

What was Donder's experiment?

-reaction time (RT) experiment

8

What is the RT experiment?

-measures interval between stimulus presentation + one's response to stimulus

9

What is the difference between the simple RT and the choice RT?

simple: response to stimulus
choice: choose whether stimulus is on right or left side

10

How did they infer decision time?

RT(choice)-RT(simple)

11

According to Donder's, can mental responses be measured directly?

-no, they can be inferred from behavior
-holds true for all research in cog. psych

12

Who founded the first psych laboratory?

Willhelm Wundt

13

What approach did Wilhelm Wundt use?

structuralism

14

What is structuralism?

-experience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensations
"periodic table of the mind"

15

What method did Wilhelm Wundt use?

analytic introspection

16

What is analytic introspection?

-participants trained to describe experiences + thought processes in response to stimuli

17

What are some problems with analytic introspection?

-creates a binary
-no way to verify
-vocabulary means different things to different people

18

Who investigated the time course of forgetting?

Ebbinghaus

19

What kind of method did Ebbinghaus use?

quantitative

20

What was Ebbinghaus's experiment?

-read list of nonsense syllables aloud
-determine how many repetitions necessary to repeat list without errors

21

What was the result from Ebbinghaus's experiment?

-short intervals = fewer repetitions to relearn

22

What are some problems with Ebbinghaus's experiment?

-subject of his own experiment
-could become better with practice
-may not be related to memory on a general sense

23

What is the Ebbinghaus curve?

-Savings curve
-function of percent savings v. time
-high percent of savings during early hours because less time to forget

24

Who taught the first psychology course at Harvard?

William James

25

What were James' observations based on?

his own mind, not experiments
(functionalism)

26

Who found problems with analytic introspection?

John Watson

27

What were the 2 problems John Watson found with analytic introspection?

1. extremely variable results
2. results difficult to verify

28

What was the new approach proposed by Watson?

behaviorism

29

What is behaviorism?

-eliminate mind as topic of study
-study directly observable behavior

30

What experiment did Watson and Rayner conduct?

"Little Albert" experiment

31

What was the Little Albert Experiment?

-classical condition of fear
-conditioning 9 month old to be afraid

32

Who was inspiration for Watson's work?

Ivan Pavlov

33

What did Ivan Pavlov do?

-pavlov's dogs
-pari neutral event with even that naturally produces some outcome

34

Who studied operant conditioning?

BF Skinner

35

What is Operant conditioning?

-behavior shaped by rewards or punishments
-rewarded behavior more likely to be repeated, punished behavior less likely

36

Who were the first 6 psychologists that lead to the rise of behaviorism?

1. Donders
2. Wundt
3. Ebbinghaus
4. William James
5. Watson
6. Skinner

37

Who trained rats in a maze?

Tolman

38

What was Tolman's maze?

-rats initially explored maze
-rat placed in A, food placed in B
-rat learned quickly to turn right to get food

39

What was the new discovery from Tolman's maze?

-when food placed in C rat turned left to get food
-formation of a cognitive map

40

According to behaviorists, what would happen when the food was placed in C

rat would turn right because that's what it learned

41

How did the decline of behaviorism happen?

-controversy over language acquisition

42

What did Skinner argue in Verbal Behavior (1957)?

-children learn language through operant conditioning

43

Who argued against Skinner's Verbal Behavior?

Noam Chomsky

44

What did Chomsky argue about language?

-children do not only learn language through imitation + reinforcement
-children say things they never heard
-determined by inborn biological program

45

What is the 1950s cognitive revolution?

-shift from behaviorists stimulus-response relationships
-new goal to understand operations of mind

46

How did computers process information?

-in stages
-input, input processor, memory unit, arithmetic unit, output

47

What is the information-processing approach?

-way to study mind like it is a computer
-separate stages

48

What was Cherrys' experiment?

-"dichotic" listening

49

What is dichotic listening

-present different messages in R/L ear
-shadow one message
-participants able to focus only on message they were shadowing

50

What did Broadbent contribute?

-flow diagram representing what happens as a person directs attention to one stimulus

51

What are the 3 stages of Broadbent's flow diagram?

1. input
2. filter
3. detector
4. to memory

52

Who was John McCarthy?

-asked whether it would be possible to program computers to mimic operation of human mind
-organized summer conference in 1956 on AI

53

What did Newell and Simon create?

-logic theorist program
-could apply rudimentary logic to creating mathematical theorems
-more than crunch numbers

54

What are the 5 steps of research as it progresses question to question?

1. start with what is known
2. ask questions
3. design experiments
4. obtain and interpret results
5. Go to 1

55

What are models in cognitive psychology?

-representations of structures or process
-help visualize/explain structure/process

56

What are the 2 types of models?

1. structural models: represent strucutres in brain that are involved in spec. functions
2. process models: illustrate how a process operates

57

Are models identical replicas of real thing?

-no, simplifications