Chapter Nine - Knowledge Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Nine - Knowledge Deck (113):
1

Conceptual Knowledge

knowledge that enables us to recognize objects + events
-make inferences about their properties

2

Concept

-mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions

3

Categorization

process by which things are placed into groups

4

What are categories?

all possible examples of a particular concept

5

Concepts provide ______ for categories

the rules

6

Why are categories useful?

-helpful to understand individual cases not previously encountered
-"Pointers to knowledge"

7

How are categories pointers to knowledge?

-categories provide a wealth of general information about an item
-allow us to identify the special characteristics of a particular item

8

How do we determine category membership?

-whether object meets definition of the category

9

What is family resemblance?

-proposed idea to address problem that definitions often do not include all members of a category

10

How does family resemblance relate to categorization?

-things in a category resemble one another in another of ways
-allows for some variation within a category

11

Categorization may be based on _____

determining how similar an object is to some standard representation of a category

12

What is a prototype

-typical
-average representation of the typical member of cate

13

Prototype approach to categorization

-membership in a category is determined by comparing the object to a prototype that represents the category

14

What is an example of the prototype approach?

-not all birds are like robins, blue jays, or sparrows
-owls and penguins are also birds

15

Who is Rosch?
What was his experiment?

-prototype experiment
-S saw a category title (ex birds) + list of ~50 members of the category
-S asked to rate extent to which each member represented category title

16

What is high-prototypicality?

-category member closely resembles category prototype
-"tytpical" member
EX: "bird" = robin

17

What is low-prototypicality?

-category member does not closely resemble category prototype
EX: "bird" = penguin

18

What did Rosch and Mervis's experiment test?

-test how well do good + poor examples of category compare to to other items within the category

19

How did Rosch and Mervis's experiment work?

-for each common object, list as many characteristics/attributes

20

What does it mean when items have a large amount of overlap with characteristics of other items in the category?

-family resemblance of these items is high
EX: good examples of furniture = chair, sofa
poor examples = mirror

21

There is a strong positive relationship between _____ and _______

-prototypicality, family resemblance

22

What does low overlap between items mean?

-low family resemblance

23

What is the typicality effect?

-prototypical objects are processed preferentially

24

How are highly prototypical objects judge?

-more rapidly
EX: sentence verification technique
an apple is a fruit (y/n)
a pomegranate is a fruit (y/n)

25

What type of objects are named first?

-prototypical objects

26

What happens when asked to list as many objects in a category as possible?

-tend to list most prototypical members first

27

What are prototypical category members more affected by?

-a priming stimulus

28

How does a priming stimulus work?

-S heard the prime (ex: green)
-two seconds later: saw pair of colors side by side
-asked to press a key as quickly as possible if two were the same

-hearing "green" primes a highly prototypical green

29

What is the exemplar approach? (2)

1. concept represented by multiple examples
(rather than a single averaged prototype)
2. examples are actual category members

30

How do you categorize according to the exemplar approach?

-compare new item to stored examples
-this approach can explain Rosch results

31

How is the exemplar approach similar/disimilar to the prototype view?

similar: representing a category is not defining it
different: representation is not abstract (descriptions of specific examples)

32

What effect does the exemplar approach explain?

-typicality effect

33

How does the exemplar approach take into account atypical cases?

-rather than comparing a penguin to an "average" bird
-remember that there are birds that don't fly

34

Exemplars may work best for _____ categories
Prototypes may work best for _____ categories

-small
-larger

35

What does Rosch's research indicate about categories?

-different levels of categories
-from general ("furniture") to specific ("kitchen table")

36

What are the three levels of categories?

1. superordinate level (global level): "furniture"
2. basic level: "table"
3. subordinate level (or specific level): "kitchen table)

37

What is hierarchical organization?

-organization in which large/more general categories are divided into smaller, more specific categories

38

What was Rosch's experiment about levels of categorization?

-S were asked to list as many features as they could that would be common to all/most objects in category

39

What is the result of going above basic level results?

large loss of information

40

What is the result of going below basic level?

little gain of information

41

The basic level is ____ special

psychologically

42

How is the guitar/fish example evidence that the basic-level is special?

-when S asked to name a guitar and a fish
-named them by their basic level name
-guitar rather than electric guitar (specific) or musical instrument (global)
-fish rather than trout/animal

43

How does culture paly into the results of Rosch's experiment?

-there is a category level (called basic"
-reflects college undergraduates' everyday experience

44

What was Coley, Medin + Atran's experiment?

-asked both undergraduates + horticulturists to walk around campus
-name as specifically as possible 44 different plants

45

What was the result of the Coley, Medin + Atran experiment?

-75% of undergrads used trees
-horticulturalists used "specific" categories like "oak"

46

What was Tanaka and Taylor's experiment?

-asked bird experts + non-experts to name pictures of objects

47

What were the results of the Tanaka/Taylor experiment?

-experts responded by specifying the birds' species
-experts learned to pay attention to features of birds than non-experts were unaware of

48

What are 2 important factors in categorization?

1. people's knowledge
2. properties of objects

49

What are semantic networks?

-concepts are arranged in networks that represent the way concepts are organized in the mind

50

What did Collins and Quillian develop?

-model for how concepts + properties are associated in the mind
-hierarchical model (more specific to more general)

51

What is a node?

category/concept

52

What is inheritance?

-lower-level items share properties of higher-level items

53

What is the cognitive economy?

-shared properties are only stored at higher-level nodes

54

_____ are stored at lower level nodes

exceptions

55

according to the hierarchical organization, which concepts are at the top and which are the bottom?

-general concepts at the top
-specific ones at the bottom

56

What is a testable prediction?

-time it takes for a person to retrieve information about a concept should be determined by the distance that it must be traveled through the network
EX: takes longer to answer "yes" to a canary is an animal, compared to canary is a bird

57

What is activation?

arousal level of a node

58

What happens when a node is activated?

-activity spreads out along all connected links

59

What happens to concepts that receive activation?

-primed and more easily accessed from memory

60

What is the Lexical decision task/

-participants read stimuli
-asked to say as quickly as possible whether the item is a word or not

61

What were the results of Meyer and Schvaneveldt's lexical decision task?

-reaction time was faster for pairs that were closely associated
-spreading activation

62

What is a criticism of Collins and Quillian?

1. cannot explain typicality effects
EX: model predicts equal fast RT for both canary and ostrich as they are one node away from bird

2. evidence that people store specific properties of concepts right at the node for the concept
3. some sentence-verification results are problematic for the model

63

What is the typicality effect?

reaction times for statements about an object are faster for more typical members of a category

64

What are new approaches to the semantic network due to?

1. criticism of semantic networks
2. advances in understanding how information is represented in the brain

65

What is connectionism?

-approach to creating computer models for representing cognitive processes

66

What is connectionism also called?

-parallel distributed processing
-knowledge represented in the distributed activity of many units

67

______ determine at each connection how strongly an incoming signal will ________

weights, activate the next unit

68

(connectionist approach)
what are lines?

connections that transfer information between units (axons)

69

(connectionist approach)
what are output units?

-receive input from hidden units

70

(connectionist approach)
what are units

-inspired by neurons in the brain
-patterns of activity in units represent concepts + their properties

71

(connectionist approach)
what are input units?

units activated by stimuli from the environment

72

(connectionist approach)
what is connection weight?

-how signals sent from one unit either increase/decrease the activity in the next unit

73

What are high connection weights?

-result in strong tendency to excite the next unit

74

What are the 5 aspects of the connectionist approach?

1. lines
2. connection weight
3. units
4. output units
5. input units

75

What are negative connection weights?

-can decrease excitation
-or inhibit activation of the receiving unit

76

What are the 2 things the activation of units depends on?

1. signal that originates in the input units
2. the connection weights throughout the network

77

How is a stimulus represented according to the connectionist approach?

-by the pattern of activity that is distributed across the other units

78

What is the learning process for the connection approach?

-connection weights have to be adjusted in order for the network to operate properly

79

How does learning occur in the connectionist approach? (3)

1. network responds to stimulus
2. provide with correct response
3. modifies responding to match correct response

80

What is error signal?

-difference between actual activity of each output unit + correct activity

81

What is back propagation?

-error signal transmitted back through the circuit

82

What is the purpose of error signal?

-indicates how weights should be changed to allow the output signal to match the correct signal

83

The process ____ until the error signal is _____

repeats, zero

84

What is the initial state of the units in the connectionist approach?

-initially weak and undifferentiated activation of property units
-with many errors

85

What is the process of error signal in the connectionist approach? (3)

1. error signals are sent back
2. changes are made in connection weights
3. each learning ex. causes only a small change in the connection weights

86

What happens in connectionist networks?

-information about each concept is contained in distributed pattern of activity
-across a number of units

87

Is the operation of connectionist networks totally disrupted by damage?

-no

88

what is graceful degradation?

disruption of performance occurs gradually as parts of the system are damaged

89

How can connectionist networks explain generlization of learning?

-similar concepts have similar patterns
-training a system to recognize the properties of one concept also provides info about other related concepts

90

How can different areas of the brain be specialized to process info about different categories?

1. double dissociation for categories
EX: "living things" and "nonliving things"
2. category specific memory impairment

91

What is the sensory-functional hypothesis?

-our ability to differentiate living things + artifacts depends on semantic memory system
-distinguishes sensory attributes + function

92

What does the Sensory-functional hypothesis predict about a patient who can't identify living things?

they should have impaired sensory abilities

93

What did Caramazza + Shelton find about the sensory functional hypothesis?

-reported a patient who couldn't identify living things
-impaired sensory memory
-also had impaired functional ability
(contradicts (S-F hypothesis)

94

What does the sensory-functional hypothesis predict about a person who can't identify artifacts

should have impaired functional knowledge

95

What did Ralphs find about the sensory functional hypothesis?

-reported a patient who couldn't recognize artifacts
-had impaired sensory ability

96

There are specific ____ in the brain for specific categories

neural circuits

97

How are neural circuits arranged in the brain for specific categories?

-distributed over a number of different cortical areas

98

Why might there be a limited number of categories that are innately determined?

because of their importance for survival

99

What did Wilmer et. al test?

-the idea that there may be a limited number of categories that are innately determined because of their importance for survival

100

How did Wilmer run his experiment?

-measuring face recognition ability in mozygotic + dizogotic twins

101

What were the results of Wilmer's facial recognition experiment?

-correlation of scores between identical twins was more than twice as high as the other group
-there may be a genetic basis for the mech involved in face recognition

102

What is the multiple factors approach?

-looks at how concepts are divided up within a category
-rather than identifying specific brain areas of networks for different concepts

103

Mechanical devices (EX: musical instruments) overlap with:

-artifacts (involve performing actions)
-animals (involve sound and motion)

104

How do mechanical devices have a widely distributed semantic representation?

-regions important for the representation of both living things and artifacts

105

patients may be able to identify mechanical devices even if _____

they perform poorly for other types of artifacts

106

What is another differentiating factor between animals and artifacts?

-crowding

107

What is crowding?

when different concepts within a category share many properties
EX: "animals" all share "eyes," "legs," "ability to move"
-artifacts share fewer properties

108

Why might patients with category-specific impairments not have a category impairment at all?

-patients may have difficulty recognizing living things because they have difficulty distinguishing between items that share similar features

109

What is the embodied approach?

-our knowledge of concepts is based on reactivation of sensory + motor processes that occur when we interact with the object

110

What is an example of the embodied approach?

-when we use a hammer:
-different sensory areas are activated due to hammer's size/shape etc.
-motor areas are activated that are involved in carrying out actions involved in using a hammer
-interaction between action and perception

111

What are mirror neurons?

-neurons that fire when we do a task or when we observe another doing that same task

112

How do mirror neurons connect to the embodied approach?

-thinking about concepts causes activation of perceptual and motor areas associated with the concepts

113

How do mirror neurons connect to the semantic somatotopy theory?

-correspondence between words related to specific body parts + location of brain activation
EX: kicking + reading the word "kick" activate the same brain areas