Flashcards in Chapter-One-Textbook Deck (52):
What is Empirical Evidence?
Based on scientific research, evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, and measurement.
The discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes, and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment.
Pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language.
What does Psychobabble promise?
Easy fixes to life's problems and challenges.
What is Psychobabble based on?
Unsupported popular opinion.
Define Critical Thinking
The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgements on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.
What are Critical Thinkers able to do?
Look for flaws in arguments and resist claims that have no support.
What are the Eight Essential Critical Thinking Guidelines?
1. Ask questions, be willing to wonder2. Define your terms3. Examine the evidence4. Analyze assumptions and biases 5. Don't oversimplify6. Avoid emotional reasoning7. Tolerate uncertainty8. Consider other interpretations
What does "Ask Questions; Be Willing to Wonder" mean?
Leads to the identification of problems and challenges.
Why is it important to "Define Your Terms"?
To frame questions in clear and concrete terms, because vague or poorly defined terms can lead to misleading or incomplete answers.
Why is it important to "Examine the Evidence""?
Critical thinkers must consider whether evidence came from a reliable source to help fact-check the evidence.
Beliefs taken for granted.
What is a Bias?
Occurs when a belief or assumption prevents careful consideration of the evidence or causes ignorance of evidence.
What can impair our ability to judge an argument?
Assumptions that are not made explicit.
What is a common form of oversimplification?
Argument by anecdote - generalizing from a personal experience or a few examples. Often leads to stereotypes.
What is Occam's Razor?
The principle of choosing the solution that accounts for the most evidence with the fewest unverified assumptions.
When did psychology become a formal discipline?
In the nineteenth century.
What do modern psychologists want to do?
Describe, predict, understand, and modify behaviour in order to add to human knowledge and increase human happiness.
What did John Locke argue?
That the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience.
What is Phrenology?
A now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, and can be read from bumps on the skull.
Who announced that he wanted to make psychology a science?
Wilhelm Wundt, late 1800s.
What did Wundt's researched focus on?
Sensation, perception, reaction times, imagery, and attention.
What is Structuralism?
An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience (sensations, images, feelings) into basic elements. This practice has now disappeared.
What is Functionalism?
An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behaviour and consciousness, instead of analyzing and describing it. Asks "why" and "how" instead of "what". Includes the "stream of consciousness". This school no longer exists but the emphasis on causes and consequences still does.
What is Psychoanalysis?
A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts. Mental, not physical, reasons for symptoms.
What are "Mind Cures"?
1830-1900 movement that included efforts to correct the "false ideas" that made people anxious, depressed, and unhappy-a forerunner of modern cognitive therapies.
What are the Major Psychological Perspectives?
The biological, learning, cognitive, sociocultural, and psychodynamic perspectives.
What is the Biological Perspective?
A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts. Nervous system and endocrine system. "We cannot really know ourselves if we do not know our bodies".
What is Evolutionary Psychology?
Part of the Biological Perspective, a field of psychology that emphasizes evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behaviour.
What is the Learning Perspective?
A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions; it includes behaviourism and social-cognitive theories.
What do behaviourists focus on?
The environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviours. (Learning Perspective).
What is Behaviourism?
An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behaviour and the role of the environment as a determinant of behaviour.
What do social-cognitive learning theorist focus on?
The elements of behaviourism combined with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions. Adapting to the environment and learning from others. (Learning Perspective).
What is the Cognitive Perspective?
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behaviour.
What is the Sociocultural Perspective?
A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behaviour.
What do social psychologists focus on?
Social rules and roles, how groups affect attitudes and behaviour, why people obey authority, and how each of us is affected by other people. (Sociocultural Perspective).
What do cultural psychologists focus on?
Cultural rules and values and how they affect people's development, behaviour, and feelings. (Sociocultural Perspective).
What is the Psychodynamic Perspective?
A psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy.
What is Humanist Psychology?
A psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behaviour. Rejects psychoanalysis and behaviourism. Emphasizes free will.
What is Positive Psychology?
Psychology that emphasizes the qualities that enable a person to be happy, optimistic, and resilient. Influenced by Humanist Psychology.
What is Feminist Psychology?
A psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behaviour of the two sexes.
What are the three main categories of psychologists?
1. Teaching and research in an academic setting2. Psychological practice (providing health or mental-health services)3. Research or application in a non-academic setting.
What is Basic Psychology?
The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for practical application.
What is Applied Psychology?
The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings.
What do Experiment Psychologists do?
Conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.
What do Educational Psychologists do?
Study psychological principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve educational systems.
What do Developmental Psychologists do?
Study how people change and grow over time, physically, mentally, and socially.
What do Industrial/organizational Psychologists do?
Study behaviour in the workplace.
What do Psychometric Psychologists do?
Design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality.
What is a Psychotherapist?
Unregulated person who does any kind of psychotherapy.
What is a Psychoanalyst?
A person who practises psychoanalysis, and who has obtained specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute and undergone extensive psychoanalysis personally.