Flashcards in Kin: Introduction Deck (29):

1

## Define Imagination

### Application of knowledge. Good to form hypothesis and progress.

2

## Define Knowledge

### Understanding fundamental principles, gives a basis for imagination

3

## What is Creativity?

### Connecting different things through imagination and knowledge.

4

## What are the Common characteristics of research? (5)

### Systematic, logical, empirical, reductive, replicable

5

## Systematic

### problems, methods, data, analysis, interpretation, conclsion

6

## Logical

### others can evaluate conclusions drawn

7

## Empirical

### conclusions based on data

8

## Reductive

### Data is used to establish more general relationships

9

## Replicable

### Research process is recorded and others can repeat or build on it

10

## What are the 4 philosophical worldviews?

### Postpositivism, Constructivism, Tranformative, Pragmatism

11

## What is postpositivism?

### Based on the notion of a single reality and objective truth. Research is unbiased and objective. Associated with scientific model and quantitative research.

12

## What is constructivism?

### Based on the notion of multiple realities and meanings. Focus on the complexity of views. Researchers recognize that their backgrounds shape their results. Very Qualitative.

13

## What is transformative?

### Based on the notion that research should be intertwined with politics and a political agenda. Focus on action and reform for the subjects in the study. Qualitative data.

14

## What is pragmatism?

### Based on research concerned with 'what works'. Finding solutions to problems. No commitment to a single notion of reality. Use whatever method works best for the situation. Mixed methods.

15

## Quantitative Research

### For theory testing, describing status on variables, and looking at relations among variable. More people and harder.

16

## What are 4 forms of quantitative research?

### Measurements, statistics, protection against bias, and structure (SM)

17

## Scientific Method

###
1. Problem (variabled)

2. Hypothesis (anticipated outcome)

3. Gather Data (internal and external validity)

4. Analyze and Interpret Results

18

## What is internal validity vs. external validity?

###
Internal: Standardized

External: generalability of results

19

## What are the 3 forms of research questions in quantitative research?

###
1. Compare groups

2. Relate variables

3. Describe response/ status on variable

20

## What do statistics inform us about? (2)

### reliability and meaningfulness

21

## What is the Central Tendency?

### A single score that best represents all scores for a group of individuals

22

## How do you calculate mean?

### Average

23

## How do you calculate median?

### Middle when arranged in order

24

## How do you calculate mode?

### Most common number in sequence

25

## How do you calculate variance?

### (number ins sequence -average)^2 + (...)^2 / # of #'s - 1

26

## How do you calculate standard deviation?

### The square root of variance

27

## What is qualitative research?

### Research for meaning-making process, must recognize bias, flexibility in how it is represented (constructivism and transformative) less people but easier

28

## What are 4 types of qualitative data?

### documents, audiovisual material, observations, interviews

29