Flashcards in Kin: Introduction Deck (29):
Application of knowledge. Good to form hypothesis and progress.
Understanding fundamental principles, gives a basis for imagination
What is Creativity?
Connecting different things through imagination and knowledge.
What are the Common characteristics of research? (5)
Systematic, logical, empirical, reductive, replicable
problems, methods, data, analysis, interpretation, conclsion
others can evaluate conclusions drawn
conclusions based on data
Data is used to establish more general relationships
Research process is recorded and others can repeat or build on it
What are the 4 philosophical worldviews?
Postpositivism, Constructivism, Tranformative, Pragmatism
What is postpositivism?
Based on the notion of a single reality and objective truth. Research is unbiased and objective. Associated with scientific model and quantitative research.
What is constructivism?
Based on the notion of multiple realities and meanings. Focus on the complexity of views. Researchers recognize that their backgrounds shape their results. Very Qualitative.
What is transformative?
Based on the notion that research should be intertwined with politics and a political agenda. Focus on action and reform for the subjects in the study. Qualitative data.
What is pragmatism?
Based on research concerned with 'what works'. Finding solutions to problems. No commitment to a single notion of reality. Use whatever method works best for the situation. Mixed methods.
For theory testing, describing status on variables, and looking at relations among variable. More people and harder.
What are 4 forms of quantitative research?
Measurements, statistics, protection against bias, and structure (SM)
1. Problem (variabled)
2. Hypothesis (anticipated outcome)
3. Gather Data (internal and external validity)
4. Analyze and Interpret Results
What is internal validity vs. external validity?
External: generalability of results
What are the 3 forms of research questions in quantitative research?
1. Compare groups
2. Relate variables
3. Describe response/ status on variable
What do statistics inform us about? (2)
reliability and meaningfulness
What is the Central Tendency?
A single score that best represents all scores for a group of individuals
How do you calculate mean?
How do you calculate median?
Middle when arranged in order
How do you calculate mode?
Most common number in sequence
How do you calculate variance?
(number ins sequence -average)^2 + (...)^2 / # of #'s - 1
How do you calculate standard deviation?
The square root of variance
What is qualitative research?
Research for meaning-making process, must recognize bias, flexibility in how it is represented (constructivism and transformative) less people but easier
What are 4 types of qualitative data?
documents, audiovisual material, observations, interviews