Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (92):
What is psychology?
The empirical study of behaviour and mental processes.
Name 5 aspects of human functioning?
1. Overt Actions/Behaviours
2. Social Relationships
3. Mental Processes
4. Emotional Responses
5. Physiological Reactions
List some examples of an overt action or behaviour
walking, jumping, talking
How do we think and process information?
Through mental processes
How do social relationships function?
By defining relationships through actions and behviours
What 2 types of emotional responses are there?
1. Primary (innate)
2. Secondary (taught)
Physiological Reactions are often linked to...
What are two types of non-scientific approaches to psychological questions?
Pseudoscience and psychobabble
List the 8 Critical thinking guidelines
1. Ask questions
2. Define your terms
3. Examine the evidence
4. Analyze assumptions and biases
5. Avoid emotional reasoning
6. Consider other interpretations
7. Tolerate uncertainty
What is the difference between basic and applied research?
Basic is done in a lab and applied research is more practicle
What are 3 things that psychologists do?
Psychological research, psychological practice, and psychology in the community/industry
Brain-training based on the idea of neuroplasticity. The idea that you can retrain brainwave activity for a peaked performance..
What is the difference between psychotherapists and clinical psychologists?
psychotherapists do not have any regulations whereas clinical psychologists are regulated.
What is the difference between psychoanalysts and psychiatrists?
psychoanalysts do require specialized training but psychiatrists are specialized doctors who can prescribe medications.
What does the Canadian Psychological Association do? (4)
1. Regulates psychological education in Canada
2. Promotes psychology across Canada
3. Holds conferences
4. Oversees research in Canada and publishes journals
What does the Saskatchewan College of Psychologists require and what are they?
The regulatory body. You must have a:
1. A masters degree
2. 1 full year of supervised practice
3. Must pass a written examination
What is the Psychology Association of Saskatchewan?
Our fraternal organization
What does the Psychology Association of Saskatchewan do?
1. They connect through conferences and workshops
2. They create networking
What is Trepanation?
The process of drilling or cutting holes in the skull to individuals with psychological issues and behavioural issues.
Who is Hippocrates?
The founder of modern medicine.
What did Hippocrates believe?
That the brain was the source of intellect and emotions.
That what we think effects how we feel and therefore effects how we behave.
What did John Locke believe?
That the mind works by associated ideas that arise by experience
Who was John Locke
An english philosopher
What was John Locke's concept of Tabla Rasa?
That children enter the world as blank slates and everything are is a result of there experiences.
Who was credited with the concept of phrenology?
Joseph Gall, and austrian physitian
Describe what people who practice phrenology believe
That the structure of a person's skull may be correlated with their individual personality, characteristics, and abilities.
What are the 3 main schools of early psychology?
What 2 people are credited with the concept of structuralism and what time period did they live in?
Wundt and Titchner, the late 19th and early 20th century.
What are 2 main components of structuralism and who is given credit for coming up with them?
1. That it is focused on immediate conscious experience
2. Behaviour is analyzed into basic parts or structures.
What is introspection and what early school of though does it fall into?
A person's description of how they are thinking and feeling. Began in structuralism ad was continued into functionalism.
What is a good example of introspection?
Asking students standardized questions in a psychology lab
Looking at the conscious as a series of very specific elements. Breaking down thoughts and feelings.
Why isn't structuralism used anymore?
It isn't very practical and it has just died out due out over time
What element of structuralism is still used today?
Who is credited with the concept of functionalism and what time period did he live in?
William James, the late 19th and early 20th century.
What was the name of the earliest text published in psychology and who wrote it?
The Principles of Psychology, William James
What is functionalism?
It is the study of how and why the mind functions. It examines how people adapt to their environment.
What did William James believe?
The the conscious was continuous and evolving.
How was introspection used in functionalism?
Through self reporting
Who is credited with the concept of psychoanalysis and what time period did they live in?
Sigmund Freud, the late 19th and early 20th century.
What does psychoanalysi study? (3)
1. The unconscious mental processes (motives) that direct behaviour
2. How childhood behaviour influences adult behaviour
3. How sexual energy fuel behaviour
What tools did Sigmund Freud use to uncover peoples unconscious motives?
Free Association and Dream Analysis
What is Free Association?
When someone gets clients to quickly say what comes to their minds when they think of specific words.
What is the theory of psychoanalysis?
Issues you have as an adult are caused by repressed childhood urges.
What group of people did Freud work with to develop his theory about children
Who was Sigmund Freud?
A medical doctor in vienna who is associated with psychoanalysis.
What are the 6 modern views of psychology?
1. The Biological Perspective
2. The Learning Perspective
3. Cognitive Perspective
4. Sociocultural Perspective
6. Feminist Psychology
What are the 2 elements of the biological perspective?
Biopsychology and evolutionary psychology
Who is credited with biopscyhology? (3)
What does biopsychology examine?
How the brain controls behviour
What does biopscyhology focus on?
The genetic component of behaviour
What does biopsychology believe in?
What is predisposition?
People are predisposed to act specific ways based on their genetics and heredity.
How are mental disorders normally treated through biopsychology?
through therapy and medication
What is evolutionary psychology?
The belief that human behaviour is encoded into our genome and that we have instinctive programming for learning different things.
What are two components of the learning perspective?
Behaviourism and social-cognitive learning theory
What does behaviourism reject and what does it instead believe?
It rejects the study of consciousness and argues that all behaviour represents learned responses to stimuli.
What does the therapy associated with behaviourism consist of?
replacing dysfunctional behaviour with appropriate behaviour through learning.
Which 2 historical figures focused on overt behaviour within their studies of behaviourism?
Pavlov and Skiner.
What did Pavlov study?
What did Skinner study?
What does the cognitive perspective focus on?
Mind processes including perception, memory, and thinking
What does the cognitive perspective believe?
That people engage in behaviours (adaptive or not) because of ideas and thought
Who came up with the idea of schemas?
What are schemas and what perspective are they associated with?
Schemas are sets of cognitions. They are how your mind interprets situations based on what it already knows. Cognitive perspective.
What does Cognitive therapy examine and what are some examples?
How negative cognitions are influencing behaviour. e.g. Self -talk: positive affirmation to yourself.
Who is credited with the sociocultural perspective and what decade did it become popular? (2)
Bruner and Broffenbrenner, 1990s
What is the sociocultural perspective?
A perspective which emphasizes the social and cultural influences.
What is social psychology?
The study of rules, roles, groups, and relationships.
What is cultural psychology?
The study of cultural norms, values, and expressions.
What is the Ecological System Model of development?
The levels or systems of environment that children develop in.
What is the first level of the ES Model?
Describe the Microsystem
The child's very close and specific influences. (parents, siblings, daycare, etc.)
What is the second level of the ES Model?
Describe the mesosystem
Interactions within the microsystem
What is the third level of the ES Model?
Describe the Exosystem
Environments that influence but are not immediately a part of a child's environment. e.g. parents work.
What is the fourth level of the ES Model?
Describe the macrosystem
All of the social laws/customs and cultural norms.
What is the possible fifth level of the ES Model?
Describe the chronos
The timing of changes that occur in any systems or environments for the child. This has a large impact on development. E.g. death, divorce, moving, etc.
What is the humanistic perspective?
A perspective which emphasizes the innate goodness of people and free will
Who is credited with the humanistic perspective and what time period did it happen in? (2)
Rogers and Maslow, early-late 20th century
Describe Self-actualization as described by Maslow.
The fact that people strive for psychological growth, self-fulfillment, and goodness. They reach this once they no longer have to live for themselves but for society as a whole.
What are the 5 levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
Physiological Needs, Safety, Love/Belonging, Esteem, and Self-actualization
What does feminist psychology analyze?
The influence of social behaviour on gender relations and on the behaviour of the two sexes and the biases that existed in psychological research due to that fact that it was generally only male-participants.
Who is credited with Feminist Psychology?
Who is Karen Horney?
A psychoanalyst who studied feminist psychology and questioned freud's ideas about mental health.
When did Feminist Psychology start and why did it start?
In the late 1960s and early 1970s. It was a pushback against patriarchy and a male-dominated world.
What do feminist psychologists do?
Recognize the years of male bias in data collection and psychotherapy. Questions the use of research in justifying women's lower status or elevating women's status (female bias).
What was freud's daughters name and what did he study?
Anna and Feminist psychology.