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Flashcards in Kin: Motivation Deck (46):
1

Define Motivation

The internal/external forces that produce initiation, direction, and persistence of behavior

2

What are 3 components of motivation?

1. Direction of effort
2. Intensity of effort
3. Persistance

3

What is the direction of effort?

Situations that are sought out

4

What is the intensity of effort?

Amount of time put forth

5

What is persistence?

Maintaining intensity of effort over a period of time, critical during obstacles

6

Describe Intrinsic Motivation

Engaging in behviours because of interest or enjoyment

7

Describe Extrinsic Motivation

Engaging in behaviours in order to obtain rewards outcomes that lie outside the activity itself.

8

What are the three Approaches to Understanding Motivation for Behavioural change?

1. Behavioural Approaches
2. Cognitive Approach
3. Cognitive Behvioural Approach

9

Who are the fathers or behaviourism?

Watson and Skinner

10

What do the behavioural approaches have in common?

They focus on conditioning and say that learning from environment determines people's actions.

11

What are the 2 Behavioural Approaches?

Operant Conditioning and Vicarious Conditioning

12

What is operant conditioning?

Behaviours that are associated with consequences and are learned through reinforcement or punishment following the behviour.

13

Define Reinforcement

All factors that increase frequency of a behviour

14

What is Positive reinforcement?

Giving something to increase good behaviour. E.g. A mother gives her son praise (positive stimulus) for doing homework (behavior).

15

What is negative reinforcement?

Taking away something to increase good behaviour. E.g. Bob does the dishes (behavior) in order to avoid his mother nagging (negative stimulus).

16

What is a punishment?

Any factor that decreases the frequency of the behaviour. E.g. A child grabs a toy from another child (behavior) and is sent to time out (negative stimulus)

17

What is Vicarious Conditioning?

Something which only results from observing others and the outcome must be valued by the individual.

18

What do cognitive approaches have in common?

Emphasize the thoughts, patterns, and cognitive habits as causes of behaviour. It is how you interpret things, rationalize, them, and work things out. Teaches people to use rational thought and logic.

19

Who is the father of the cognitive approach approach?

Aaron Beck

20

What are the cognitive approaches?

Self-determination theory, Attribution theory, and social Cognitive theory.

21

Who are key figures in Self determination theory?

Edward Deci and Richard Ryan.

22

What does self-determination theory focus on?

The extent to which behaviours are undertaken from an individuals own choice vs. controlled by something that is external

23

What are the 6 dimensions of the motivational continuum?

1. A motivation
2. External Regulation
3. Introjected Regulation
4. Identified Regulation
5. Integrated Regulation
6. Intrinsic Regulaiton

24

Describe Amotivation.

An absence of motivation.

25

Describe External Motivation

An extrinsic motivation where the activity is done to fulfill some sort of external demand.

26

Describe introjected Regulation.

Extrinsic motivation where the activity is done to avoid negative emotion, enhance positive emotion, or maintain self-worth.

27

Describe Identified Regulation.

Extrinsic motivation where the activity is linked to important goals that stem from participating in the activity.

28

Integrate Regulation

Extrinsic regulation in which the activity is symbolic of the individuals identity

29

Intrinsic Regulation

Where the activity is inherently satisfying, enjoyable, interesting, stimulating, self-rewarding, etc.

30

What is Attribution theory?

Focuses on how individuals explain success and failure. The explanations directly effect motivation.

31

What are the Internal forces of motivation?

Personal forces such as ability and effort.

32

What are External Forces of motivation?

Environmental forces such as task difficulty and luck

33

What are stable forces?

Forces that are relatively enduring such as Ability & task difficulty

34

What are unstable forces?

Forces that may change over time such as effort and luck

35

What is Social Cognitive Theory?

Describes factors that affect and determine behaviour and is rooted in the belief that individuals are proactively engaged in their own development. Motivation is personal, behavioural, and environmental.

36

Who is a key figure in Social Cognitive theory?

Albert Bandura

37

What are the 3 components of the Dynamic Interplay of the Social Cognitive Theory? (Reciprocal Determinism)

1. Behvioural factors
2. Personal factors
3. Environemntal factors

38

What are some behavioural factors?

effort, persistence

39

What are some personal factors?

beliefs, attitudes

40

What are some environmental factors

physical space, social pressure

41

Define Self-efficacy

Belief in one's capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments

42

Who was the father of the cognitive behavioural approach?

Donald Meichenbaum

43

What are are 2 central tenets?

1. Cognitions influence out emotions and behviours
2. Our behviour can affect our thoughts and emotions

44

What are SMART goals?

Specific, Measureable, Adjustable, REalistic, and Timely

45

What are 2 cognitive behvioural approached?

Goal setting and feedback

46

Why is feedback good?

Allows individual to learn what thy are doing correctly or incorrectly