Flashcards in Kin: Motivation Deck (46):
The internal/external forces that produce initiation, direction, and persistence of behavior
What are 3 components of motivation?
1. Direction of effort
2. Intensity of effort
What is the direction of effort?
Situations that are sought out
What is the intensity of effort?
Amount of time put forth
What is persistence?
Maintaining intensity of effort over a period of time, critical during obstacles
Describe Intrinsic Motivation
Engaging in behviours because of interest or enjoyment
Describe Extrinsic Motivation
Engaging in behaviours in order to obtain rewards outcomes that lie outside the activity itself.
What are the three Approaches to Understanding Motivation for Behavioural change?
1. Behavioural Approaches
2. Cognitive Approach
3. Cognitive Behvioural Approach
Who are the fathers or behaviourism?
Watson and Skinner
What do the behavioural approaches have in common?
They focus on conditioning and say that learning from environment determines people's actions.
What are the 2 Behavioural Approaches?
Operant Conditioning and Vicarious Conditioning
What is operant conditioning?
Behaviours that are associated with consequences and are learned through reinforcement or punishment following the behviour.
All factors that increase frequency of a behviour
What is Positive reinforcement?
Giving something to increase good behaviour. E.g. A mother gives her son praise (positive stimulus) for doing homework (behavior).
What is negative reinforcement?
Taking away something to increase good behaviour. E.g. Bob does the dishes (behavior) in order to avoid his mother nagging (negative stimulus).
What is a punishment?
Any factor that decreases the frequency of the behaviour. E.g. A child grabs a toy from another child (behavior) and is sent to time out (negative stimulus)
What is Vicarious Conditioning?
Something which only results from observing others and the outcome must be valued by the individual.
What do cognitive approaches have in common?
Emphasize the thoughts, patterns, and cognitive habits as causes of behaviour. It is how you interpret things, rationalize, them, and work things out. Teaches people to use rational thought and logic.
Who is the father of the cognitive approach approach?
What are the cognitive approaches?
Self-determination theory, Attribution theory, and social Cognitive theory.
Who are key figures in Self determination theory?
Edward Deci and Richard Ryan.
What does self-determination theory focus on?
The extent to which behaviours are undertaken from an individuals own choice vs. controlled by something that is external
What are the 6 dimensions of the motivational continuum?
1. A motivation
2. External Regulation
3. Introjected Regulation
4. Identified Regulation
5. Integrated Regulation
6. Intrinsic Regulaiton
An absence of motivation.
Describe External Motivation
An extrinsic motivation where the activity is done to fulfill some sort of external demand.
Describe introjected Regulation.
Extrinsic motivation where the activity is done to avoid negative emotion, enhance positive emotion, or maintain self-worth.
Describe Identified Regulation.
Extrinsic motivation where the activity is linked to important goals that stem from participating in the activity.
Extrinsic regulation in which the activity is symbolic of the individuals identity
Where the activity is inherently satisfying, enjoyable, interesting, stimulating, self-rewarding, etc.
What is Attribution theory?
Focuses on how individuals explain success and failure. The explanations directly effect motivation.
What are the Internal forces of motivation?
Personal forces such as ability and effort.
What are External Forces of motivation?
Environmental forces such as task difficulty and luck
What are stable forces?
Forces that are relatively enduring such as Ability & task difficulty
What are unstable forces?
Forces that may change over time such as effort and luck
What is Social Cognitive Theory?
Describes factors that affect and determine behaviour and is rooted in the belief that individuals are proactively engaged in their own development. Motivation is personal, behavioural, and environmental.
Who is a key figure in Social Cognitive theory?
What are the 3 components of the Dynamic Interplay of the Social Cognitive Theory? (Reciprocal Determinism)
1. Behvioural factors
2. Personal factors
3. Environemntal factors
What are some behavioural factors?
What are some personal factors?
What are some environmental factors
physical space, social pressure
Belief in one's capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments
Who was the father of the cognitive behavioural approach?
What are are 2 central tenets?
1. Cognitions influence out emotions and behviours
2. Our behviour can affect our thoughts and emotions
What are SMART goals?
Specific, Measureable, Adjustable, REalistic, and Timely
What are 2 cognitive behvioural approached?
Goal setting and feedback