Chapter Ten- Nervous Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Ten- Nervous Deck (92):
1

Cerebr/o

Cerebrum

2

Dur/o

Dura matter

3

Encephal/o

Brain

4

Gli/o

Glial cells

5

Lept/o

Thin, slender

6

Mening/o, meningi/o

Membranes, meninges

7

My/o

Muscle

8

Myel/o

Spinal cord (bone marrow)

9

Neur/o

Nerve

10

Pont/o

Pons

11

Radicul/o

Nerve root (of spinal nerves)

12

Thalam/o

Thalamus

13

Thec/o

Sheath

14

Vag/o

Vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)

15

Alges/o, -algesia

Excessive sensitivity to pain

16

-algia

Pain

17

Caus/o

Burning

18

Comat/o

Deep sleep (coma)

19

Esthesi/o, -esthesia

Feeling, nervous sensation

20

Kines/o, kinesi/o, -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic

Movement

21

-lepsy

Seizure

22

Lex/o

Word, phrase

23

-paresis

Weakness

24

-phasia

Speech

25

-plegia

Paralysis

26

-praxia

Action

27

-sthenia

Strength

28

Syncop/o

To cut off, cut short

29

Tax/o

Order, coordination

30

Cerebell/o

Cerebellum

31

Acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells

32

Afferent nerve

Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve)

33

Arachnoid membrane

Middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

34

Astrocyte

Type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries

35

Autonomic nervous system

Nerves that control involuntary body function and muscles, glands, and internal organs

36

Axon

Microscopic fibers that carry the nerve impulse along a nerve cell

37

Blood-brain barrier

Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out

38

Brain stem

Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata

39

Cauda equina

Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

40

Cell body

Part of a nerve that contains the nucleus

41

Central nervous system (CNS)

Brain and the spinal cord

42

Cerebellum

Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance

43

Cerebral cortex

Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain

44

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Circulated throughout the brain and spinal cord

45

Cerebrum

Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory

46

Cranial nerves

Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck

47

Dendrite

Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse

48

Dura mater

Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord

49

Efferent nerve

Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve

50

Ependymal cell

Glial cell that lines membranes from within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid

51

Ganglion

Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

52

Glial cell (neuroglial cell)

Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses (astrocytes etc)

53

Gyrus

Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution

54

Hypothalamus

Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temp, and secretions from the pituitary gland

55

Medulla oblongata

Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here

56

Meninges

Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

57

Microglial cell

Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system

58

Motor nerve

Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve

59

Myelin sheath

Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons

60

Nerve

Macroscopic cord like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses

61

Neuron

Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body

62

Neurotransmitter

Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell; stimulates or inhibits another cell

63

Oligiodendroglial cell

Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons

64

Parasympathetic nerves

Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the GI tract

65

Parenchyma

Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system (brain, spinal cord, and neurons)

66

Peripheral nervous system

Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves

67

Pia mater

Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges

68

Plexus

Large, interlacing network of nerves

69

Pons

Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain (bridge)

70

Receptor

Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent neves (skin, ears, eyes)

71

Sciatic nerve

Nerve extending from the base of the spins down the thigh, lower leg, and foot

72

Sciatica

Pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve

73

Sensory nerve

Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve

74

Spinal nerves

Thirty one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord

75

Stimulus

Agent of change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response

76

Stroma

Connective and supporting tissue of an organ

77

Sulcus

Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure

78

Sympathetic nerves

Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress

79

Synapse

Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells

80

Thalamus

Main relay center of the brain; conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum

81

Vagus nerve

Tenth cranial nerve; branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus and stomach.

82

Ventricles of the brain

Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid

83

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis

Samples of CSF are examined

84

Cerebral angiography

X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessel in the brain after injection of contrast material

85

Computed tomography (CT) of the brain

X-ray technique that generates computerized multiple images of the brain and spinal cord

86

Myelography

X-ray imaging of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space

87

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy create images of the brain and spinal cord

88

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

Radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image in the metabolic activity of cells

89

Doppler ultrasound studies

Sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries

90

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Recording of the electrical activity of the brain

91

Lumbar puncture (LP)

CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis

92

Stereotactic radio surgery

Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain