Chemical Bonding Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemical Bonding Deck (85):
1

In n=1, a full octet consists of how many electrons?

2

2

Created when a metallic cation forms an electrostatic bond with a non-metal anion

Ionic compound

3

Metals are ________

Cations

4

Non-metals are _________

Anions

5

Cations ________ electrons

Lose

6

Anions _________ electrons

Gain

7

These elements lose electrons from their highest s-sublevel first before losing from their d-sublevel

D-block cations

8

How strong are ionic bonds?

Very strong

9

Since it ionic bonds are very strong, a lot of energy had to be put in to break them apart. This makes them very ___________

Endothermic

10

In ionic solids, a higher energy correlates with a _________ melting point

Higher

11

The energy required to keep a bond together is ________ to the energy required to break a bond apart

Energy

12

The smaller the ion, the ____________ the melting point

Higher

13

The larger the ion, the __________ the bond

Weaker

14

Ionic solids generally have ______ melting points

High

15

Are ionic solids typically very soft or hard?

Hard

16

How well do ionic solids evaporate?

Not well

17

Ionic solids are not malleable or ductile and _________ along planes

Cleave

18

Most ionic solids are _______ in polar solvents

Soluble

19

Ionic solids conduct electricity only when molten or ____________ in a polar solvent

Dissolved

20

The higher the concentration of ions in a solution, the ________ the electrical conductivity

Higher

21

A bond in which one atom shares one or more pairs of electrons with another atom so that they both acquire full octets

Covalent bonds

22

___________ are not transferred in covalent bonds

Electrons

23

Covalent bonds occurs between two ____________

Non-metals

24

As two atoms get closer to each other, the attraction between the __________ of one atom and the ________________ of the other atom increases

Nucleus, valence electrons

25

An elements ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond

Electronegativity

26

Electrons spend more time around an atom with a ________ electronegativity

High

27

What type of bond does a compound with an electronegativity difference of less than 0.5 have?

Nonpolar covalent bond

28

What type of bond does a compound with an electronegativity difference of 0.5-1.9 have?

Polar covalent bond

29

What type of bond does a compound with an electronegativity difference of more than 1.9 have?

Ionic bond

30

In polar covalent bonds, the atom with the higher higher electronegativity develops a ________________ as the valence electrons from both atoms spend more time around it

Partial negative charge

31

In polar covalent bonds the atom with the lower electronegativity develops a ___________________ which is equal in magnitude to the partial negative charge of the more electronegative atom

Partial positive

32

_____________ increase as electronegativity differences increase

Partial charges

33

The sum of the partial charges in any molecule or ion is always equal to the ________________ of the species

Overall

34

Two or more non-metals bonded together to form a compound

Molecules

35

Lewis structures are only used for _____________

Covalent compounds (molecules)

36

When making Lewis structures, the __________ electronegative atom should go in the center

Least

37

Hydrogen is always a __________ atom

Terminal

38

Beryllium and boron are examples of ______________ atoms

Electron deficient

39

Atoms in periods __________ can bond with other atoms in such a way that they end up with more than 8 electrons in their octets

3-7

40

How are expanded octets possible?

They have d-orbitals in their outer shells that can accept electrons

41

The more likely Lewis structure will have formal charges that are closer to or equal to ________

Zero

42

Negative formal charges should reside on the more __________ elements in the structure

Electronegative

43

How do you calculate formal charge?

(# of valence electrons assigned to the neutral atom) - (# of atoms assigned to the electron in the atomic structure)

44

The potential energy of valence electrons _____________ as they approach the nucleus of another atom

Decreases

45

Energy is _________ during the formation of a bond

Released

46

The more energy released during the formation of a bond the ________ the bond will be

Stronger

47

The amount of energy that is required to break the bond between two specific atoms in a molecule

Bond energy

48

As the atomic radii of bonding atoms increase, the bond length ___________

Increases

49

As the number of bonds between two atoms increases, the bond length __________

Decreases

50

Why does the number of bonds between atoms correlate with the bond length?

As the electron density between the atoms increases, the attractive forces between the protons and valence electrons increases

51

How do you find bond order?

# of bonds/ # of terminal atoms

52

A higher bond order correlates with a __________ bond length

Shorter

53

Higher bond order correlates with a __________ bond energy

Higher

54

How many bonds does carbon have?

4

55

How many bonds does nitrogen have?

3

56

How many bonds does oxygen have?

2

57

How many bonds do fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and hydrogen have?

1

58

Elements tend to gain or lose electrons to acquire a full _________

Octet

59

What does VSEPR theory stand for?

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

60

Charge clouds repel each other do to _____________________

Coulombic repulsion

61

____________ move as far away from each other as possible

Terminal atoms

62

Theory that states that bonding occurs when atomic orbitals overlap

Valence bond theory

63

What is the problem with valence bond theory?

It gets the bond angle wrong

64

What is the solution to valence bond theory?

Hybrid orbitals

65

____ bonds have side to side overlap

Pi

66

________ bonds have head to head overlap

Sigma

67

Single bonds are ______ ponds

Sigma

68

How many pi and sigma bonds does a double bond have?

1 pi, 1 sigma

69

How many pi and sigma bonds does a triple bond have?

2 pi, 1 sigma

70

What type of bonds are able to spin on an axis?

Single bonds

71

Why can't double bonds spin?

Pi bonds are rigid and prevents the sigma bonds from spinning, locking the molecule in place

72

What are isomers?

Molecules with similar formulas but different shapes

73

Why do pi bonds cause isomers?

They creat a lack of flexibility in the molecule

74

Type of isomer where the carbon chain follows the same side

Cis

75

Type of isomer where the carbon chain follows opposite sides

Trans

76

What type of bond is shorter?

Sigma

77

A molecule is polar when the molecule has a _____________ moment

Dipole

78

The normal configuration of the electron about the atom or ion of an element

Ground state

79

At the ground state, electrons are at their ________ possible energy level

Lowest

80

When particles absorb energy (ex. heat) they leave their ground state and become __________

Excited

81

Excited state is ______

Unstable

82

As electrons return to their ground state, they release the absorbed energy in the form of _____________

Electromagnetic energy

83

A red color light possesses ______ energy

Low

84

Violet possesses _________ energy

High

85

Metallic ions possess electrons that are _________ excited

Easily