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Flashcards in The Solid State Deck (35):
1

The stronger the intermolecular forces, the ___________ movement of the particles

Slower

2

What are the properties of amorphous solids?

-random arrangement of particles
-particles have no orderly structure
-macroscopic structures lack well defined faces and shapes
-many are mixtures of molecules that do not stack up well together
-glass and rubber are examples

3

What are the properties of Crystalline Solids?

-atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly fashion that follows a pattern of repetition in three dimensions
-macroscopic structures usually have flat surfaces that make definite angles to one another
-ionic solids and quarts are examples


4

Segments in crystalline solids that repeat in three dimensions

Unit cells

5

In liquids particles go thorough ____________ meaning they move around

Translation

6

The corners of the cubes

Lattice points

7

This unit cell contains:
8 corners x 1/8 of an atom
= 1 atom/unit cell

Simple cubic

8

This unit cell contains:
8 corners x 1/8 of an atom + 1 central
=2 atoms/unit cell

Body centered cubic

9

This unit cell contains:
8 corners x 1/8 of an atom + 6 faces x 1/2 of an atom
=4 atoms/unit cell

Face centered cube

10

What are the properties of molecular solids?

-consists of nonmetals, diatomic elements, or compounds composed of two or more nonmetals
-normally do not conduct electricity
-covalently bonded units are held together by weak intermolecular forces
-soft
-have low melting points

11

Why do molecular solids normally not conduct electricity

Electrons are held within the covalent bonds of each molecule

12

What is an example of a molecular solid?

I2

13

___________ fats have stronger dispersion forces, and are solid at room temperature

Unsaturated

14

Why do unsaturated fats have weaker dispersion forces?

A double bond bends the carbon, causing the molecule to be sp2 hybridized, therefore being trigonal planar

15

What is an example of a molecular solid?

Wax

16

One or two nonmetals held together by networks of covalent bonds instead of intermolecular forces

Covalent network solids

17

What are the properties of a covalent network solid?

-very hard
-very high melting points

18

Why are covalent network solids normally very hard?

-atoms are covalently bonded with fixed bond angles

19

In graphite, each carbons forms three _____ hybrid orbitals that bond with three other carbon atoms

Sp2

20

Graphite and diamond are __________ of each other

Allotropes

21

Why can sheets of graphite slide over each other so easily?

Weak pi bonds and london dispersion forces

22

Why does graphite have a high melting point?

The covalent bonds between carbon in each later are relatively strong

23

In diamond, many carbon atoms bond together with _______ hybrid orbitals

Sp3

24

What is the molecular geometry of diamond?

Tetrahedral

25

In diamonds each carbon makes a single covalent bond with ___ other carbon atoms

4

26

Other common covalent network solids include _________ and __________

SiO2 and Si

27

Si is a ______________

Semiconductor

28

Why is bonding in metallic solids not covalent?

Not enough electrons to fill octets

29

How does bonding in metallic solids work?

Attractions between nuclei and delocalized valence electrons move throughout the structure

30

Bond strength in metallic solids __________ as the number of bonding electrons increases

Increases

31

Why so metals bend, not break when hit with a hammer?

There are no directional bonds

32

Describe the electron sea model in metallic bonding

Nuclei and inner shells are stationary, while valence electrons are free to move throughout the solid

33

What are properties of metallic solids?

-conduct electricity
-conduct heat
-malleable and ductile
-lack directional bonds

34

Why do saturated fats have stronger London dispersion forces?

It's linear shape is good for stacking, meaning there are many points of contact between molecules

35

Why are diamonds so hard?

-Diamonds are one massive molecule held together by covalent bonds
-the sp3 hybridization allows for a tetrahedral structure which is very strong