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Flashcards in Atomic Theory Deck (62):
1

Who is accredited with thinking up the law of conservation of mass?

Antoine Lavoisier

2

This law says that "different pure samples of the same compound always contain the same proportions of each element of mass"

The law of definite proportions

3

What were John Dalton's four postulates?

1) Each element is composed of tiny particles called atoms
2) All atoms of a given element are identical and all atoms of different elements are different
3) Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. They are dissociated, combined, or recombined
4)Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with one another. A given compound always contains the same relative numbers and types of atoms

4

Who discovered electrons?

J.J Thompson

5

Who discovered a nucleus with protons in atoms?

Earnest B Rutherford

6

equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons

Mass number

7

The number of protons (or electrons in a neutral atom)

Atomic number

8

Same element with a different number of neutrons

Isotope

9

Isotopes of an element exhibit _________ chemical behavior

Identical

10

Atomic mass given in the periodic table is an _________ of all of the isotopes of that element

Average

11

In mass spectrometry, less deflection means a ___________ mass

Larger

12

What is the equation for average atomic mass?

(Mass# x %)+(Mass# x %) = average mass

13

What is the equation for mass percent of an element in a substance?

Mass % of element= (# of atoms of element)(elements atomic mass) / (formula weight of compound) x 100

14

Linear distance covered before a wave starts to repeat itself

Wavelength

15

A low frequency wave has a __________ wavelength

Higher

16

What is the formula for wavelength in its relation to frequency?

C=(wavelength)(v)

17

What is the constant in the formula?

3 x 10^8 m/s

18

Who hypotheses that the energy radiated from a heated objects is emitted in discrete units or quants

Max Planck

19

Plancks constant is represented as ____

H

20

The higher the frequency the _________ the energy

Higher

21

Highly intense _____________ light does not eject any electrons

Low frequency

22

When the __________________ is reached electrons are ejected immediately

Threshold frequency

23

Increasing the intensity of the light at a frequency that will cause electrons to eject results in a ____________ however all electrons share the same velocity

Higher ejection rate

24

Increasing the frequency of the light increases the velocity of the ejected electrons, however all ejected electrons ___________________

Share the same velocity

25

A beam of light is a stream if particles called _________

Photons

26

What is Plancks equation?

E=hv

27

State Coulomb's law

The force of attraction decreases as the distance between the outermost electron and the protons increase

28

The electrons that are furthest from the nucleus are partly _________ by the inner core electrons

Shielded

29

The minimum amount of energy that is required to remove the outermost electron form an atom in its gas phase

First ionization energy

30

Ionization energy generally __________ as you move across the periodic table

Increases

31

Electrons contained in the inner shell

Inner core electrons

32

Electrons contained in the outer shell

Valence electrons

33

N=1 can hold how many subshells?

1

34

What is the subshell n=1 can hold?

1s

35

What subshells does n=2 contain?

2s and 2p

36

How many electrons can subshell 2s hold?

2

37

How many electrons can subshell 2p hold?

6

38

How many electrons can 3s hold?

2

39

How many electrons can 3p hold?

6

40

How many electrons can subshell 3d hold?

10

41

The shielding effect ___________ for each subshell that is added

Increases

42

Electrons furthest from the nucleus have _________ potential energy

Higher

43

According to the QM model, all electrons under the same subshell have __________ energy

The same

44

A graphic representation of the space that and electron will occupy 90% of the time

Orbital

45

Electrons are added to the _______ energy orbitals available

Lowest

46

Atoms with unpaired electrons

Paramagnetic

47

atoms with no unpaired electrons

Diamagnetic atoms

48

The effective nuclear charge (the charge experience by an electron) is written as _______

Zeff

49

As you go across the periodic table the atomic radius __________

Decreases

50

Metals lose elections to form ________

Cations

51

Non-metals fain electrons to form _________

Anions

52

___________ share the same electronic configurations but have different radii

Isolectronic species

53

_________ are smaller than smaller than neutral atoms

Cations

54

________ are larger than neutral atoms

Anions

55

It's harder to pull electrons from a ________ subshell

Full

56

First ionization energy generally _________ as atomic radii decrease

Increase

57

The second ionization potential for an atoms is always __________

Greater

58

An elements ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond

Electronegativity

59

Electrons will spend _______ time around the more electronegative element in a chemical bond

More

60

Electronegativity generally __________ as you move across the periodic table

Increases

61

Electronegativity ________ as atomic radius decreases

Increases

62

Who was the first to think about atomic theory?

Democritus