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Flashcards in Nuclear Chemistry Deck (38):
1

drives the nucleus apart

Electrostatic Repulsion

2

Pulls particles apart

Nuclear Force/ Binding energy

3

Is binding energy or electrostatic repulsion stronger?

Binding Energy

4

Have a positive charge

Protons

5

Have no charge

Neutrons

6

Protons and neutrons are known as _________

nucleons

7

Top number, number of nucleons

Mass #

8

Number of protons, bottom number

Atomic #

9

In which an unstable nucleus undergoes a change and a reduction in energy to become more stable

Nuclear Decay

10

In alpha decay, what alpha particle is emitted?

H-4

11

In which a high speed electron is ejected from a neutron, this turns the neutron into a proton

Beta Decay

12

In which a high speed positron is ejected from a proton, this turns the proton into a neutron

Positron emission/beta postive decay

13

In which a proton absorbs an electron, this turns the proton into a neutron

Electron capture

14

What turns into what in Beta decay?

neutron turns into a proton

15

What turns into what in positron emission?

proton turns into a neutron

16

What turns into what in Electron capture?

proton turns into a neutron

17

Has the mass of an electron with a positive charge

positron

18

the nucleus is _______ immediately after any type of decay

unstable

19

As the number of protons increase, repulsive forces ____________

Increase

20

What needs to happen to the ration of neutrons to protons in order to counteract the repulsive forces?

the ratio needs to increase

21

What ration of neutrons to protons do light particles need to maintain fairly stable?

1:1

22

Zone of stability requires more ________ the larger number of protons

neutrons

23

occurs in isotopes with too many neutrons (above zone of stability)

beta decay

24

occurs in isotopes with too many protons (below zone of stability)

positron emission and electron capture

25

occurs most often in elements with more than 83 protons

Alpha Decay

26

What are the magic numbers?

2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126

27

nuclei that have a magic number of protons and neutrons ____________

will never decay

28

the time it takes for the half life of a radioactive sample of an isotope to decay

Nuclear Half Life

29

Does temperature changes affect the rate of nuclear decay?

no

30

Nuclear decay rates are always __________

first order

31

When a proton and a neutron bind together, their masses ___________

decrease

32

The mass that is lost when a proton and neutron bind together is converted into _________

energy

33

-The energy required to split a nucleus into its individual nucleons
- the energy released when individual protons and neutrons are bond together to form a nucleus

binding energy

34

In which two nuclei are fused to form a nucleus with an atomic mass that is less than or equal to 56 amu

Nuclear fusion

35

What happens in nuclear fusion and fission?

-the mass of each nuclei decreases
-the lost mass is converted to energy
-the binding energy per nucleon increases

36

In which a massive nucleus is split to produce two nuclei with atomic masses that are greater than or equal to 56 amu

Nuclear fission

37

As binding energy increases, mass ____________

Decreases

38

Does nuclear fission or fusion release more energy?

Fusion