Chemistry - TRIMESTER TWO REVIEW Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry - TRIMESTER TWO REVIEW Deck (31):
1

cation

positive charge

2

anion

negative charge

3

naming acids: (3)

-ide -->
-ite -->
-ate -->

hydro + -ic

-ous acid

-ic acid

4

naming covalent bond prefixes # 1-10 (10)

1 = mono
2 = di
3 = tri
4 = tetra
5 = penta
6 = hepta
7 = hexa
8 = octa
9 = nona
10 = deca

5

one mole = ...?

6.02 x 10^23 representative particles

6

volume units at STP?

22.4 L = 1 mole

7

percent composition steps (3)

1. find mass of each individual element and multiply it by how many atoms of each element is present
2. add it up and get total
3. take the elements' total mass for each individual element and divide it by the compounds total mass to get the percent of each element in the compound

8

empirical formula steps (4)

1. take given amounts and convert to moles
2. take the results from step 1 and divide it by the smallest number from step 1
3. multiply number from step 2 by 1 mole of each element
4. resulted number = the number of atoms in the empirical formula

9

molecular formula steps (3)

1. find empirical formula
2. take the molar mass of the compound and divide it by the empirical formula's molar mass
3. the results from step 2 and multiply it by the empirical formula's subscript numbers

10

what are the signs of a chemical reaction? (3)

production of a gas

color change

formation of a precipitate

11

skeleton equation

chemical equation that doesn't indicate the relative amounts of the reactants and products

ex. Fe + O2 --> Fe2O3

12

combination reaction

A + B --> AB

13

decomposition reaction

AB --> A + B

14

single-replacement reaction

A + BC --> B + AC

15

double-replacement reaction

A(+)B(-) + C(+)D(-) --> A(+)D(-) + C(+)B(-)

reactants and products - 2 ionic compounds

16

combustion reaction (2)

reactants: C, H, and O

product: CO2, H2O, and maybe C and CO

17

ask Cymerman about using activity series sheet thingy

so I can use it on final test

18

stoichiometry

the calculations of quantities in chemical reactions

19

limiting reactant steps (4)

1. balance chemical equation
2. take given amount of an element / compound and convert it to moles
3. take the largest number received from step 2 and multiply it by the mole ratio.
4. if the result from step 3 is smaller than the smaller number from step 2, than it is the limiting reactant.

20

theoretical yield steps (2)

1. convert the given amount to moles
2. multiply results from step 1 by the mole ratio

21

percent yield

(actual yield / theoretical yield) x 100%

22

kinetic theory

states that all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion

23

Gases are... (7)

small

hard

insignificant volume

has rapid, constant, and random motion of particles

collisions b/t particles = perfectly elastic

particles travel in straight-line paths b/t collisions

particles = far apart and have no attractive/repulsive forces

24

absolute zero (3)

temp. where motion of particles theoretically ceases

O K or -273.15 degrees Celsius

no temp. can be lower than this

25

the kelvin temp. scale reflects... (2)

the relationship b/t temp. and average kinetic energy (they are both directly related)

kelvin temp = directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substances

26

properties of liquids (4)

particles have kinetic energy, which allows them to flow past one another

particles have attractive forces

denser than gases

considered a condensed state of matter (solids too)

27

properties of solids (4)

particles are packed tightly together

densest among all states of matter

hard to compress

doesn't flow

28

phase diagrams

gives the conditions of temperature and pressure at which a substance exists as solid, liquid, or gas (vapor)

29

when can a dynamic equilibrium exist b/t a liquid and its vapor? (2)

when its in a system at constant vapor pressure b/c the rate of evaporation = the rate of condensation of vapor

30

when does a liquid boil?

when its vapor pressure = the external pressure

31

what temp. are the melting and freezing points at to be considered at its equilibrium ?

when they are at the same temp.