Flashcards in Chemosensation Deck (15)
loss of taste
loss of smell
taste, smell, chemesthesis
Description of basic taste receptors
sour= ion channel
salty= ion channel
How is taste information transmitted?
Taste information is carried on facial and glossopharyngeal nerves to end in the nuc. solitary tr. From there they can project to VPM in thalamus which then project to the gustatory cortex.
What nerve carries taste from ant 2/3 of tongue?
What nerve carries taste from post 1/3 of tongue?
Types of taste buds
Circumvallate= large, in back
Fungiform= in front
How do the GPCR work in taste?
2nd messenger cascade
Involves PLC, IP3R, the Trp channel which when activated releases ATP
Odorant binds to the receptor protein, G-protein (Golf) activates adenylate cyclase which locally generates cAMP.
cAMP opens a nearby cAMP-gated ion channel which permits influx of Na+ and Ca2+. The local increase in Ca2+ opens adjacent Ca2+-gated Chloride channels.
Since Cl- levels in the receptor cell are quite high, opening a Cl- channel results in outflow of Cl- thereby further depolarizing the cell.
This amplified depolarization is sufficient to drive the cell to threshold thereby triggering an action potential.
Smell (receptor cell, cranial nerve(s), primary sensory nucleus in CNS)
Receptor cell: ciliated, bipolar neuron
Cranial Nerve: CN I
Primary sensory nucleus: Olfactory bulb
Taste (receptor cell, cranial nerve(s), primary sensory nucleus in CNS)
Receptor cell: modified epithelial cell
Cranial Nerve: CN VII, IX, X
Primary sensory nucleus: Nucleus of sol tract
Chemesthesis (receptor cell, cranial nerve(s), primary sensory nucleus in CNS)
Receptor cell: Free nerve ending of cranial ganglion cell
Cranial Nerve: CN V
Primary sensory nucleus: Spinal trigeminal nucleus
How does transmission of olfactory info occur?
Axons of the olfactory neurons converge on glomeruli (tangles of axons and dendrites) present at the outer layer of the olfactory bulb.
Olfactory receptor neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor protein project their axons to the same glomerulus.
The primary principle of encoding odor quality is through a odor-related map of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. In contrast, within the olfactory epithelium, receptor cells expressing a common receptor are scattered throughout the epithelium.
The response to single odorants is usually not localized to a single glomerulus but is distributed in wide areas of the glomerular layer. Therefore, identification of an odor entails recognition of the pattern of activity across all glomeruli of the olfactory bulb.
Info then goes from olfactory bulb to the Primary Olfactory Cortex