Cortical Lesions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cortical Lesions Deck (20)
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1

Two major categories of cortical disorders

1. Diffuse (degenerative, metabolic)
2. Focal (vascular, traumatic, neoplastic)

2

Frontal lobe functions

Voluntary movement
Language production (left)
Motor prosody (right)
Comportment
Executive function
Motivation

3

Temporal lobe functions

Audition
Language comprehension (left)
Sensory prosody (right)
Memory
Emotion

4

Parietal lobe functions

Tactile sensation
Visuospatial function (right)
Attention (right)
Reading (left)
Writing (left)
Calculation (left)

5

Occipital Lobe functions

Vision
Vision perception
Vision recognition

6

Frontal lobe lesions

Worse if bilateral

Deficits in motor function (upper motor neuron involvement), language, prosody, and neuropsychiatric disorders (frontal lobe syndromes)

7

Motor aprosody

Don't inflect speech with emotion

Lesion of the right inferior frontal gyrus (Broca’s area homologue)

8

Orbitofrontal cortex damage

Disinhibition

A frontal lobe syndrome

9

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortices damage

Executive dysfunction

Exhibit perseveration

A frontal lobe syndrome

10

Medial frontal cortices damage

Apathy

A frontal lobe syndrome

11

Temporal lobe lesions

Lesions of the temporal lobe have minor effects on audition, but often major effects on language, prosody, memory, and emotion

In terms of the emotions, the effects of temporal lobe lesions result from irritative lesions of the cortex that cause epilepsy

12

Sensory aprosody

inability to comprehend the prosody of others

Analogous to Wernicke’s aphasia

13

Limbic lesions

Often disturb emotional function

14

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE)

Common form of epilepsy, related to focal cortical lesions in the temporal lobe that produce complex partial seizures

Behavioral phenomena can be associated with these seizures

Can change wiring of the brain to make people hyper-religious, write a bunch, philosophical, etc

15

Parietal Lobe Lesions

Deficits in tactile sensation, but also in cognition: visuospatial dysfunction, inattention to the contralateral space (right parietal with left hemineglect), and reading, writing and calculation disorders (all with left side lesions)

16

Hemineglect

Usually rt side lesions of parietal lobe with neglect of left side

The right hemisphere has the capacity to attend to both sides of space, whereas the left can only attend to the contralateral space

17

Occipital lobe lesions

visual field deficits: most common are hemianopia and quadrantanopia

18

Visual agnosia

Failure to recognize objects that are adequately seen

19

Alexia without agraphia

Lesion of the left occipital lobe and the splenium of the corpus callosum disconnects the visual system from the left angular gyrus

20

Hemispheric disconnection

Effects are generally mild, but left hand anomia, agraphia, and apraxia can be seen