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Flashcards in Ocular Pharmacology Deck (8)
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1

What is open angle glaucoma, its risk factors, and goal of treatment?

Open angle glaucoma ("chronic simple" or "wide angle" glaucoma) is the most common and preventable cause of blindness. Risk factors include elevated IOP, family history, myopia, and HTN. Prophylactic reduction of IOP reduces progression to glaucoma.

2

What five classes of drugs are used to treat open angle glaucoma?

Prostaglandin analogues, Beta blockers, Alpha-2 agonists, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, Cholinergic agonists

3

What is the general information, mechanism, and adverse reactions of prostaglandin analogues?

General - First line treatment of open angle glaucoma Mechanism - Increases outflow of aqueous humor. Adverse reactions - brown discoloration of iris, eyelash lengthening, irritation.

4

What is the general information, mechanism, and adverse reactions of Beta Blockers?

General - Second line treatment of OAG. Mechanism - Reduces aqueous humor production via block of beta-receptor pathway. Adverse reaction - Systemic absorption reactions, contraindicated in asthma, COPD, heart failure, bradycardia, and heart block

5

What is the general information, mechanism, and adverse reactions of Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?

General - Second or third line treatment. Mechanism - Reduces aqueous humor production via reduction of bicarb ions. Adverse reactions - Bitter taste

6

What is the general information, mechanism, and adverse reactions of Alpha-2 agonists?

General - Second or third line treatment. Mechanism - Increases outflow and inhibits production of aqueous humor. Adverse effects - red eye/irritation, CNS depression, apnea in children

7

What is the general information, mechanism, and adverse reactions of cholinergic agonists?

General - Third line treatment if used at all. Mechanism - Increases outflow via M-receptor induced contraction of ciliary muscle. Adverse reaction - Ciliary spasm leading to headache, myopia, dim vision.

8

What is closed angle glaucoma, and what is its treatment?

Closed angle