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Flashcards in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders Deck (18)
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What is the 1st and 2nd biggest culprits in childhood mental retardation?

First is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, second is Down's.


Below what IQ score is it considered to be mentally retarded? What are the subsequent ranks of mental retardation?

Below 70 is mental retardation and it goes down on a scale of 20. 70-51 is mild, 50-31 is moderate. 49-20 is severe. Below 20 is profound.


What percentage of people who are mentally retarded fall under the mild category and what classifies this condition? Are males or females more prone to this?

85% of mentally retarded are mildly retarded, these are people who are generally self sustaining and require mild supervision (to prevent others from taking advantage of them). Males are x2 more likely to be mentally retarded than females.


How does one define moderately mentally retarded?

They are "trainable" meaning they can learn how to be productive but require vocational training and supervision.


How are severe and profound mental retardation defined?

Severely mentally retarded people cannot be trained, they can communicate and learn basic habits but thats it. Profound mental retardation requires constant supervision and nursing.


Under what umbrella term does autism fall under?

Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD).


What are symptoms of autistic children?

Problems having a social exchange, verbal and non verbal communication, repetitive behavior, abnormal or delayed language development. No separation anxiety. Oblivious to external world and no anticipatory posture. Pronoune reversal (mildly autistic). Sees nothing as animate, preference of inanimate.


Male: female of autism? Frequency of autism?

4:1, males x4 more likely. 1 in 150 live births are autistic and the number is increasing.


What is autism linked with in over 80% of the cases?

Mental retardation, over 80% have a IQ below 70.


What is an "idiot savante?"

Someone who is mentally retarded but can do one thing particularly well.


What are some genetic associations of autism?

Mutations in chromosomes 11 and 15.


Besides genetics, autism is linked with what else?

Rubella infection or others in the first trimester, mother having asthma, psoriasis, or allergies while pregnant (x2 more likely), and x3 more likely if the child is 3 months or more premature. Seems to be immune mediated related.


MMR vaccine and autism?

No relation.


What is the basic pathology of autism?

The inability of the brain to perform apoptosis and thereby severing old, unneeded connections and making new connections. Seems to be a cortical pathology.


What are "mirror neurons" and do autistic kids have them?

These are neurons that can be attributed to the feeling of empathy because it will portray the "echo" of someone else's brain into yours. I.e., someone else yawns so you yawn too. Autistic kids lack that.


What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? (There is no such thing as ADD anymore).

It's a person with difficulty controlling attention, easily distracted, impulsive, fidgets, is disruptive and can have trouble in maintaining relationships.


What is the gender distribution of ADHD?

10:1 males:females.


What is a neurological association of ADHD?

Lower levels of dopamine. Also many have undetected sleep disorders as well.