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Flashcards in Schizophrenia Deck (25)
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What are the 7 criteria for schizophrenia? 2 of these must be present to dx.

Bizarre delusions, AUDITORY (not visual) hallucinations (75% will present with this), blunted affect (meaning speaking in a monotone with no tone differentiation), loose associations (dog sky thursday), deficiency in reality testing (one foot in reality another in their own world), disturbances in form and content of language (think they are napolean is content, loose association is form), changes in psychomotor behavior (loses gracefulness in motion, just moves weird).


What is the difference between Schizophreniform, schizophrenia and brief psychotic disorder?

Schizophreniform is someone suffering from schizo symptoms for less than 6 months, whereas schizophrenia is more than 6 months. Brief psychotic disorder is schizo symptoms for less than a month, then a return to full normal function.


What is the demographics of schizophrenia?

Men get it from 15-24, women from 25-34. 1% of all humans have it, but it is more prevalent in people of lower socio economic status. Over 50% live alone and not in an institution.


How many classes of schizophrenia are there and what are they?

5 classes, Disorganized, Catatonic, Paranoid, Residual, or undifferentiated.


Generally describe what exactly is schizophrenia?

It is a disorder of though process having both positive and negative symptoms.


In addition to the 7 criteria for schizophrenia, what else must be present to dx schizophrenia?

Social or occupational dysfunction and the presence of the symptoms for greater than 6 months.


What is the spectrum of schizo?

Schizoaffective > Schizophrenia > Schizotypical personality disorder > Schizoid personality disorder.


What increases the risk of schizophrenia?

Seems to be genetically related moreso than environmental but both need to be present to trigger it.


What is "paranoid schizophrenia?"

The more milder type of schizophrenia because the onset is later and the mental and emotional defects are mild. Marked by prominent delusions of persecution or grandeur. Often accompanied by auditory hallucinations.


Describe the complete stupor variety of "catatonic schizophrenia?"

They will have long periods of complete stupor, they can be mute, have and maintain rigid postures, they can be negative and not do as you say, do exactly as you say, or copy exactly what you do (echopraxia), and can have brief outbursts of violence and return to stupor.


Describe the excited catatonic schizophrenic?

Extremely excited, extreme motor agitation, "bouncing off the walls," then fall in exhaustion. They are incoherent and are prone to repetitious behaviors in milder forms.


Describe the disorganized schizophrenic

The more extreme form, the person is "crazy." Incoherent, primitive, uninhibited, aimless activity, poor personal appearance and hygene, pronounced thought disorder, explosive laughter, silliness, and incongruous grin.


Describe the undifferentiated schizophrenic?

We know the patient is schizophrenic but does not fall under any specific category because they have some symptoms of everything or doesnt fit into any.


What is the "residual schizophrenic?"

Patient had previous bouts of schizophrenia but no current symptoms, some negative lingering symptoms perhaps.


What is the difference between positive and negative symptoms?

Positive symptoms are things that schizophrenics have but normal people do not, and negative symptoms are what normal people have but schizo's don't.


What are positive symptoms associated with?

Associated with dopamine receptors.


What are negative symptoms associated with?

Associated with muscarinic receptors.


What is "Schizoaffective disorder?"

People who have signs of schizophrenia in addition to signs of mood disorders, such as depression or mania.


What are some predictors of good prognosis of schizophrenia?

Paranoid or catatonic types have better prognosis, late onset (i.e. females) have better prognosis, quick onset, positive symptoms, family history of mood disorders, no family hx of schizo, and absence of brain structure defects all yield good prognosis.


What is the hormonal defect that seems to cause schizophrenia?

Hyperactivity of dopamine in addition to the lack of seratonin, esp in the frontal lobe area. Glutamate is also invovled.


What are the reasons to think that schizophrenia is a presentation of attention and information processing deficits?

Smooth persuit eye movements (SPEM) are impaired (they cant follow a boring stimulus with their eyes for too long), backwards masking (i.e. if given 2 images the person can only tell you about the 2nd image and not the first after x amount of time which is elongated in schizo).


What is the P300 pathway and how do schizo's react to this?

This pathway registers spikes when a person is thinking really hard or is very interested, schizo's do not have as significant a spike as a normal person.


How does the brain of schizos differ from the normal brain in terms of the cortex?

Larger ventricle sizes and Ventricle:brain ratio, cortical atrophy, smaller frontal lobes, atrophy of the temporal lobe, and there is a corrolation between ventricle size type and prognosis of the illness.


What is each episode of schizophrenia associated with?

Anatomical damage to the brain.


How do a schizo brain differ from normal in terms of the limbic system and midbrain?

Smaller volume of left hippocampus and amygdala, loss of inhibitory neurons in second layer of anterior cingulate gyrus, and in general the limbic system is the primary site of pathology for the schizos. Lack of communication between the cortices and the mid brain.