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How did they count time in China before 19th c?

According to Dynasty: Ruler: Year he has been working as ruler.
tang Dynasty;Gudrun Schyman: third year.


Periodization in History. What does that mean, name som sysems of periodization

Material Determinism, Technological breaktroughs. Eg. Bronze age, Iron age, Industrial age. Dynasties is the most obv one, in China at least.

This gives different ideas on how to think of History. As progressive`? As Marx.


Elaborate on periodization with Dynasties in CHina. How can it look like.

A time of stability with one order. And a period of change, of dynamics.

In China they thought of it as Cyclical. Early period, height and decline. and of unification of territory and spreading out of it, a cycle.
But take heed every dynasty failed for different reasons, and in different context.


Pros and Cons of dynasty as a periodization

Pros are understands context, laws, culture while negatives is, Obscures long time historical change.