Chords and Triads Flashcards Preview

AGW Music Theory - Intermediate > Chords and Triads > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chords and Triads Deck (99):
1

What number of integer is used when referring to intervals?

Arabic numbers i.e. 1 to 8

2

What type of integer is used when referring to chords?

Roman numbers, upper case for Major Chords (I, II etc) and lower case for minor chords (i, ii etc)

3

What sign is used to mean a diminished chord?

A degree sign - superscript o.

4

What is a semitone?

Any interval between two adjacent notes in a chromatic scale.

5

What is a whole tone?

Any interval spanning two semi-tones.

6

What are the two names and the abbreviation for intervals with 0 semitones?

Perfect Unison - P1
Diminished second - d2

7

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 1 semitone?

Minor second - m2
Augmented unison, A1

8

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 2 semitones?

Major second - M2
Diminished third - d3

9

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 3 semitones?

Minor third - m3
Augmented second - A2

10

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 4 semitones?

Major third - M3
Diminished fourth - d4

11

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 5 semitones?

Perfect fourth - P4
Augmented third - A3

12

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 6 semitones?

Diminished fifth - d5
Augmented fourth - A4

13

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 7 semitones?

Perfect fifth - P5
Diminished sixth - d6

14

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 8 semitones?

Minor sixth - m6
Augmented fifth - A5

15

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 9 semitones?

Major sixth - M6
Diminished seventh - d7

16

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 10 semitones?

Minor seventh - m7
Augmented sixth - A6

17

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 11 semitones?

Major seventh - M7
Diminished octave - d8

18

What are the two names and the abbreviations for intervals with 12 semitones?

Perfect octave - P8
Augmented seventh - A7

19

How are intervals named in Western Music?

According to its number (diatonic number) and its quality.

20

What is the diatonic number of an interval?

The number of staff positions (or diatonic scale degrees - note names) it encompasses - both lines and spaces are counted, including the position (or note name) of both notes forming the interval.

21

What is never taken into consideration when determining the interval's diatonic number?

Accidentals

22

Because intervals numbers do not represent exactly interval widths, what happens to the numbering when you join two intervals?

Joining two intervals always yields an interval number one less than their sum. For example, the intervals of C-E and E-G are thirds, but joined together they form a fifth (C-G) not a sixth.

23

Because intervals numbers do not represent exactly interval widths, what happens to the numbering when you join three intervals of a third?

A stack of three thirds (C-E, E-G and G-B) is a seventh, not a ninth.

24

What are the terms used to qualify the name of an interval (i.e. the words used to indicate the quality of the interval)?

Perfect (P)
Major (M)
Minor (m)
Augmented (A)
Diminished (d)

25

What are the Perfect intervals in a diatonic scale?

Unisons (P1)
Octaves (P8)
Fourths (P4) - five semitones
Fifths (P5) - seven semitones

26

What fourth and fifth intervals are not Perfect and why?

Augmented fourth (A4) and its inversion,
Diminished fifth (d6) because they both span 6 semitones.

27

What is the inversion of a Major interval?

A minor interval.

28

What is the inversion of a minor interval?

A Major interval.

29

What is the inversion of an augmented interval?

A diminished interval.

30

What is the inversion of a diminished interval?

An augmented interval.

31

On a diatonic scale, how many intervals are there for each interval number and where do they start?

There are seven intervals for each interval number, each starting from a different note (seven unisons, seven seconds etc)

32

With the exception of unisons and octaves, how many sizes do diatonic intervals with a given interval number always occur and how do they differ?

Diatonic intervals always occur in two sizes, which differ by one semitone.

33

Within a diatonic scale, how are unisons and octaves always qualified as?

Perfect

34

Within a diatonic scale, how are fourths qualified as?

As either perfect or augmented.

35

Within a diatonic scale, how are fifths qualified as?

As either perfect or diminished.

36

Within a diatonic scale, how are seconds, thirds, sixths and sevenths qualified as?

As either Major or minor.

37

What does augmented mean?

They exceed a perfect interval or a major or minor interval by one semitone while having the same interval number (or note name).

38

What does diminished mean?

They fall short of a perfect interval or a major or minor interval by one semitone while having the same interval number (or note name).

39

What analysis is needed to determine the quality of an interval?

You have to both count the semitones and take into account the number of staff positions (note letter names) as well.

40

What is the quality of the interval A-C# and why?

It is a Major third as it spans four semitones and three staff positions (or letter names).

41

What is the quality of the interval A-Db and A#-D and why?

It is a diminished fourth because it spans four staff positions and four letter names.

42

What are the shorthand notations used for intervals?

P or per- Perfect
m or min - minor
M or maj - Major
d or dim - diminished
A or aug - Augumented
followed by the interval number ie P5, per5

43

What is a simple interval?

An interval smaller than an octave.

44

How may simple intervals be inverted?

By raising the lower pitch (note) an octave, or by lowering the upper pitch (note) an octave.

45

What are the two rules to determine the number and quality of the inversion of any simple interval?

1. The interval number and the number of the inversion always add up to nine.
2. the inversion of a major interval is a minor interval; the inversion of a perfect interval is perfect; the inversion of an augmented interval is a diminished interval and vice versa.

46

What are the criteria used to describe, classify or compare intervals with each other?

Harmonic vs. Melodic
Diatonic vs. Chromatic

47

What is a harmonic interval?

Two notes stacked vertically on top of each other with the two notes being sounded simultaneously.

48

What is a melodic interval?

Two notes written one after the other that are sounded successively.

49

What is a diatonic interval?

An interval formed by two notes of a diatonic scale.

50

What is a chromatic interval?

A non-diatonic interval forms by two notes of a chromatic scale.

51

What is a chord?

A set of three or more notes.

52

How are chords typically defined?

As combinations of intervals starting from a common noted called the root of the chord.

53

What are the six main chord qualities?

Major, minor, augmented, diminished, half diminished and dominant.

54

What are the symbols used for chord quality?

M or maj - Major
m or min - minor
P or perf - Perfect
d, dim or the degree sign - diminished
A, Aug or + - Augmented
degree sign with a slash - half diminished
dom - Dominant

55

For three note chord (triads), what does major or minor (or the symbols) always refer to?

The interval of a third above the root.

56

For three note chord (triads), what does augmented or diminished (or the symbols) always refer to?

The interval of a fifth above the root.

57

Where do the references to the quality of the chord (triad) have to appear?

The qualities have to appear immediately after the root note or at the beginning of the chord name or symbol. i.e. Cm and Cm7, m refers to the interval m3, and 3 is omitted.

58

What should be considered when the references to the quality do not appear immediately after the root note or at the beginning of the chord name?

They should be considered interval qualities, rather than chord qualities.

59

In Cm/M7 (minor/major seventh chord) what does m and M notations refer to?

"m" refers to the interval m3, minor 3.
"M" refers to the M7 interval.

60

Without contrary information, what intervals are implied?

A Major third and a Perfect Fifth (a Major triad) are implied.

61

What are the component intervals of a Major Triad?

Root, maj3, perf5

62

What are the component intervals of a minor Triad?

Root, min3, perf5

63

What are the component intervals of a Augmented Triad?

Root, maj3, aug5

64

What are the component intervals of a Diminished Triad?

Root, min3, dim5

65

What are the component intervals of a Dominant seventh chord?

Root, maj3, perf5, min7

66

What are the component intervals of a minor seventh chord?

Root, min3, perf5, min7

67

What are the component intervals of a major seventh chord?

Root, maj3, perf5, maj7

68

What are the component intervals of an augmented seventh chord?

Root, maj3, aug5, min7

69

What are the component intervals of a diminished seventh chord?

Root, min3, dim5, dim7

70

What are the component intervals of a half diminished seventh chord?

Root, min3, dim5, min7

71

What are the names of the interval with 0 semitones?

Perfect unison (diminished second).

72

What are the names of the interval with 1 semitone?

Minor second (augmented unison).

73

What are the names of the interval with 2 semitones?

Major second (diminished third).

74

What is the name of the interval with 3 semitones?

Minor third.

75

What is the name of the interval with 4 semitones?

Major third.

76

What is the name of the interval with 5 semitones?

Perfect fourth.

77

What is the name of the interval with 6 semitones?

Augmented fourth.
Diminished fifth.

78

What is the name of the interval with 7 semitones?

Perfect Fifth.

79

What is the name of the interval with 8 semitones?

Minor Sixth.

80

What is the name of the interval with 9 semitones?

Major Sixth.

81

What is the name of the interval with 10 semitones?

Minor Seventh.

82

What is the name of the interval with 11 semitones?

Major Seventh.

83

What is the name of the interval with 12 semitones?

Perfect Octave.

84

What does the structural meaning of a chord depend upon?

The degree of the scale on which it is built.

85

How are chords usually analysed?

By numbering them, using Roman numerals, upwards from the key note.

86

How are Roman numerals used to identify chords?

Upper case Roman numerals indicate major triads while lower case Roman numerals indicate minor triads.

87

What are the four main characteristics of a chord?

1. Number of distinct notes without respect to octave that consitute the chord.
2. Scale degree of the root note.
3. Position or inversion of the chord.
4. General type of intervals it contains.

88

What are the names for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 note chords?

2 - dyads
3 - triads
4 - tetrads
5 - pentads
6 - hexads

89

List the Roman numerals and the scale degree indicating the root of the chord in a major key.

Roman Numeral - Scale Degree
I - tonic
ii - supertonic
iii - mediant
IV - subdominant
V - dominant
vi - submediant
vii dim/b VII - leading tone/subtonic

90

When is a chord in root position?

When the tonic note is the lowest in the chord and the other notes are above it.

91

When is a chord in an inverted position?

When the lowest note is not the tonic.

92

What are the possible inversions of a three note chord?

Root position, 1st inversion, 2nd inversion.

93

What is the name of a chord that can be decomposed into a series of (major or minor) thirds?

A tertian chord.

94

What is another name for a triad?

A triadic chord.

95

Name the four basic triads and their component intervals.

Major triad - maj3 and perf5
Minor triad - min3 and perf5
Augmented triad - maj3 and aug5
Diminished triad - min3 and dim5

96

What are seventh chords?

Tertian chords constructed by adding a fourth note to a triad, at the interval of a third above the fifth of the chord. This creates an interval of a seventh above the root of the chord.

97

What is the only seventh chord available in a major scale?

The seventh chords on the fifth step of the scale (the dominant seventh).

98

In terms of intervals, what is the relationship of all notes in a major scale to the root?

All notes in a major scale are major or perfect intervals from the root note.

99

What is the fastest way to find a particular minor note?

Look for the equivalent note on the major scale and bring it down a semitone or half step to transform it into a minor.