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AGW Music Theory - Intermediate > Diatonic Chords > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diatonic Chords Deck (97):
1

What are diatonic chords?

The chords derived from the notes of a key. A family of chords all tied to one another by the notes of the same key. A chord that only uses notes from the "current scale".

2

How many basic diatonic chords are there in a key and why?

Each key has 7 basic diatonic chords - one built on each of the seven notes in every key. Each note serves as a root for a chord.

3

What are scale degrees?

The arabic number assigned to the notes of a key. 1 (Root) to 7.

4

How are diatonic chords named?

They are named with Roman numerals corresponding to the scale degrees on which each chord is built.

5

How are diatonic chords named using Roman numerals?

Upper case for major chords and lower case for minor chords.

6

What are the Roman numerals assigned to the diatonic chords in a Major scale?

I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, vii dim

7

What is a triad?

A chord made up of three notes.

8

What is a triad made up of?

The root, a third above and a fifth above.

9

What are triads given if the root is one of the scale degreess of a major or minor scale?

Roman numerals

10

What determines the quality of a tried?

The quality of the 3rd or 5th i.e. whether diminished (for 3rd or 5th), major (for 3rd), minor (for 3rd) or augmented (for 3rd or 5th).

11

What are the two methods of describing the constructing a major triad?

1. a major 3rd with a perfect 5th
2. a major 3rd with a minor 3rd above

12

What are the two methods of describing the constructing a minor triad?

1. a minor 3rd with a perfect 5tth
2. a minor 3rd with a major 3rd above

13

What are the two methods of describing the constructing a augmented triad?

1. a major 3rd with an augmented 5th
2. a major 3rd with a major 3rd above

14

What are the two methods of describing the constructing a diminished triad?

1. a minor 3rd with a diminished 5th
2. a minor 3rd with a minor 3rd above

15

How are inversions of triads noted using roman numerals?

Roman numeral + a for the 1st inversion - Va
Roman numeral + b for the 2nd inversion - Vb
Roman numeral + c for the 3rd inversion - Vc

16

What is the order of the notes, from bottom to top, when a chord is in its first inversion?

Third, Fifth, Root

17

What is the order of the notes, from bottom to top, when a chord is in its second inversion?

Fifth, Third, Root

18

What is the order of the notes, from bottom to top, when a chord is in its third inversion?

Root, Third, Fifth

19

When are notes of a triad said to be in "closed" position?

In triads where all the notes lie in positions closest to the other notes in the chord.

20

When are notes of a triad said to be in "open" position?

In triads where all the notes do not lie in positions closest to the other notes in the chord.

21

What is the triad harmonization of a Major scale using roman numerals?

I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, vii dim, I

22

What is the triad harmonization of a Natural Minor scale using roman numerals?

i, ii dim, bIII, iv, v, bVI, bVII, i

23

What is the triad harmonization of a Harmonic Minor scale using roman numerals?

i, ii dim, bIII+, iv, V, bVI, vii dim, i

24

What is the triad harmonization of a Melodic Minor scale using roman numerals?

i, ii, bIII+, IV, V, vi dim, vii dim, i

25

What does the "b" sign in front of the roman numerals in the minor scales mean?

All minor scales are named "relative" to the major scale in the same key-note. The use of accidental signs in front of numbered chords should be understood to refer to raising or lowering notes in the chord and not necessarily the use of a 'sharp' or 'flat' sign to achieve this. So a sharpened flat becomes a natural i.e. raised or sharpened by a semitone.

26

What are the three steps to discover the diatonic triad?

1. Construct the scale
2. Stack two generic thirds on top of each note
3. Analyze the resulting triads in terms of whether the thirds are major or minor or if the fifths are perfect, diminished or augmented.

27

What is the quality of the chord/triad if it has a major third and a perfect fifth (or minor third on top)?

Major

28

What is the quality of the chord/triad if it has a minor third and a perfect fifth (or minor third on top)?

Minor

29

What is the quality of the chord/triad if it has a minor third and a diminished fifth (or minor third on top)?

Diminished

30

What are the roman numerals assigned to diatonic chords in a Major scale?

I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, vii dim

31

What are the roman numerals assigned to diatonic chords in a natural minor scale?

i, ii dim, III, iv, v, VI, VII

32

What is the quality of the chord/triad if it has a major third and an augmented fifth (or minor third on top)?

Augmented

33

What are the roman numerals assigned to diatonic chords in an harmonic minor scale?

i, ii dim, III aug, iv, V, Vi, vii dim

34

What are the roman numerals assigned to diatonic chords in a melodic minor scale?

i, ii, III aug, VI, V, vi dim, vii dim

35

What roman numeral represents a major triad?

Upper case

36

What roman numeral represents a minor triad?

Lower case

37

What roman numeral and sign represents a diminished triad?

Upper or lower case number with a superscript o or "dim"

38

What roman numeral and sign represents an augmented triad?

Upper or lower case number with a plus sign + or "aug".

39

What does a Roman numeral with a superscript 6 indicate? Why is the number 6 used?

To indicate the first inversion of the chord. When the root note is moved to make the first inversion it is s a generic 6th above the bottom note (third).

40

What does a Roman numeral with a 6 with a 4 below indicate? Why is the number 6 and 4 used?

To indicate the second inversion of the chord. When the "third" (bottom note of the first inversion) is moved to make the second inversion it is a generic 6th above the bottom note (fifth) and the root is a generic fourth above the bottom note.

41

What are the I, IV and V chords and how are they built?

The three most used chords in each major key and are called the Primary Triads or Primary Chords.

42

How are the primary triads built?

On the 1st note (root), 4th note (subdominant) and 5th notes (dominant) of any key.

43

Do any scales share the same primary (I, IV, V) chords?

No. Every key has its own unique set of I, IV and V chords. No two keys share the same set.

44

When using the I, IV and V chords together, what is the importance of the I chord?

Gives the listener as sense of where "home" is. When using I, IV and V together the ear perceives I as home.

45

If you are playing a song in G Major, what is your root chord?

G Major

46

How do you construct a diatonic triad/chord?

By stacking thirds on the root of the scale.

47

How do you refer to chords within a key?

By its scale degree using roman numbers, upper case for major chords and lower case for minor chords.

48

What is an altered or chromatic chord?

A chord that includes a pitch from outside the key.

49

What is the name of the chord that contains a pitch from outside the key?

An altered or chromatic chord.

50

When chords are written in root position, what does the root do?

The root is the note that names the chord - it is the lowest note.

51

What is the simplest way to write a triad?

As a stack of thirds in root position.

52

What is not important when determining the position of the chord?

The quality or type of interval or chord i.e. major, minor, diminished or augmented.

53

What is the essential element in chord inversions?

All the notes in the inverted chord have to have the same note names as the root position chord in order to be an inversion. You cannot call one chord an inversion of the other if eithr one of them has a note that does not share the same name with the note in the other chord. Adding a sharp or flat changes the pitch and name of the note.

54

How are the chord notes arranged if the chord is in first inversion?

The "third" of the chords is the lowest note with the root being the highest note, the "fifth" is in the middle.

55

How are the chord notes arranged if the chord is in second inversion?

The "fifth" of the chord is the lowest note with the "third" being the highest note, the "root" is in the middle.

56

What is another names for a chord in the second inversion?

The six-four chord, because the intervals in it are a sixth and fourth.

57

What does not matter in an inversion of a chord? What does matter?

It does not matter how far the higher notes are from the lowest notes, or how many of each note there are. All that matters is which note is the lowest.

58

How do you decide what position a chord is in (ie. root, 1st inversion, 2nd inversion)?

Move the notes to make a stack of thirds and identify the root (the lowest note in the scale).

59

What does the name of a chord depend on?

The intervals between its notes when the chord is in root position.

60

What two intervals can a Perfect Fifth be divided into?

A major third and a minor third.

61

How many semi-tones (half-steps) in a Perfect Fifth, Major third and minor third?

Perfect fifth - 7 semitones
Major third - 4 semitones
minor third - 3 semitones

62

What makes a chord major?

The interval between the root and the third is major (4 semitones) and the interval between the third and the fifth is minor (3 semitones).

63

What makes a chord minor?

The interval between the root and the third is minor (3 semitones) and the interval between the third and the fifth is major (4 semitones).

64

What distinquishes augmented and diminished cords from major and minor chords?

Augmented and diminished chords do not contain a Perfect fifth.

65

How is an augmented chord built (constructed)?

From two major thirds, which adds up to an augmented fifth. (or a major third and a augmented fifth)

66

How is a diminished chord built (constructed)?

From two minor thirds, which add up to a diminished fifth. (or a minor third and a diminished fifth)

67

What question do you ask yourself when trying to determine whether a third is major or minor (or if a fifth is Perfect, diminished or augmented)?

Is the upper note of the interval in question in the major scale of the bottom note? For example C E G - Is G in the C major scale? Is E is the C major scale? If yes, this is a C major chord.

68

What are the two ways to identify chords?

1. using each scale degree i.e. I, ii, iii, etc.
2. using technical names i.e. tonic triad, supertonic triad etc.

69

List the scale degree names and the technical name for each chord in a scale.

I or i - Tonic
II or ii - Supertonic
III or iii - Mediant
IV or iv - Sub-dominant
V or v - Dominant
VI or vi - Sub-mediant
VII or vii - Leading tone

70

A minor third is often described as a "flatted third". What does it mean to "flat" and note? What does it not mean? What is essential to an interval?

To "flat" a note is to lower it by one note. That does not mean the minor third is spelt with a flat letter name. A flat third can be spelled with any letter of the musical alphabet, whether it is a natural note name, a flat note name or a sharp note name. What is important is the distance between the notes that form the interval.

71

In relation to the piano keys, how many keys are not pressed down between the bottom note and the top note of a major 3rd interval?

Between the bottom note and the top note of a major third you will have three keys that are not pressed down.

72

In relation to the piano keys, how many keys are not pressed down between the bottom note and the top note of a minor 3rd interval?

Between the bottom note and the top note of a minor third you will have two keys that are not pressed down.

73

Describe the steps to identify a triad?

1. Identify the root of the triad and identify the sharps and flats in that note's key signature.
2. Look at the middle note of the triad. Determine if it is a minor third or a major third above the root by seeing whether it fits in the root's key signature or by counting half-steps. 4 half steps - major, 3 half steps - minor.
4. Look at the top note of the chord and determine its interval from the third or the root. Use the key signature or count half steps. If the former, if using the interval of a third, the third is the "root" or key center for that interval. Does the fifth note fit within the key signature of the middle note?
4. Put the two intervals together to identify the triad.

74

What do the terms "third" and "fifth" refer to in naming the notes in a triad?

The middle note of a triad being called the third and the top note being called the fifth refers to the scale degree of the note, not their order in the triad.

75

What are the steps to reading tonic triads in music?

1. Check the key signature for the number of sharps or flats.
2. Determine the key signature of the piece of music by using the sharps or flats - the key signature could be either major minor.
3. Determine whether the piece is major or minor. To do this, take the notes in the first chord and put them in order in the closest position possible according to the musical scale (A to G).
4. Determine if the first chord is major or minor. If the first chord is major use the major key from the Circle of Fifths. If the first chord is minor, use the minor key.
5. Determine which triad is tonic by using the name of the key signature. If the key signature is E minor, the tonic will be E.
6. Read the tonic triads in the piece by looking for all chords that have the notes from the tonic triad of that key.

76

What triad is referred to as tertian and why?

Triads in root position because they consist of stacked thirds.

77

What is the fundamental tone of any triad?

The root.

78

What does the fifth do?

It is built on the root and outlines the triad.

79

How many positions can a fifth exist and what are they?

3 positions - perfect, diminished, augmented

80

Where is a third built and what does it do?

A third is built between the root and the fifth and in most cases defines the quality of the chord.

81

What is the exceptions to the third defining the quality of a chord?

Diminished or augmented chords where the fifth also defines the quality of the chord,

82

What are the four qualities of intervals present in a chord?

Major, minor, diminished,augmented.

83

What is the interval construction (in thirds) for each chord quality?

Major - M3, m3
minor - m3, M3
Diminished - m3, m3
Augmented - M3, M3

84

What are the abbreviations for Major?

M, Maj, +, solid triangle, or nothing at all

85

What are the abbreviations for minor?

m, min, -

86

What are the abbreviations for Diminished?

dim, superscript circle

87

What are the abbreviations for augmented?

aug, +

88

How is a major triad built?

A major third and a perfect fifth from the root.

89

How is a minor triad built?

A minor third and a perfect fifth from the root.

90

How is a diminished triad built?

A minor triad and a diminished fifth from the root.

91

How is an augmented triad built?

A major third and an augmented fifth from the root.

92

When is a triad in root position?

The root is the lower chord tone (in the bass). The third and fifth are vertically stacked on the root. Fifth is on top.

93

How is the root position identified in figured bass notation?

5/3 position

94

How is the first inversion position identified in figured bass notation?

6/3 position

95

How is the second inversion position identified in figured bass notation?

6/4 position

96

When is a triad in first inversion position?

When the third is the lowest chord tone (in the bass). The fifth and root are vertically stacked on the third. The Root is on top.

97

When is a triad in the second inversion position?

When the fifth is the lowest chord tone (in the bass). The third is on the top.