Choudhury I Flashcards Preview

Year2 GI Exam I > Choudhury I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Choudhury I Deck (44)
1

what do the submandibular glands secrete

serous/mucus

2

what do the sublingual glands secrete

serous/mucus

3

what does the parotid gland secrete

serous

4

what do the small buccal glands secrete

mucous

5

composition of saliva

hypotonic

6

what are functions of lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, glycoprotein of IgA?

antibacterial, chelate iron, antibacterial and secretory against virus and bacteria

7

role of kallikrein

activates bradykinin- dilaters arterioles, increased blood to secretory glands and icnreases secretions

8

what is use of bicarb in saliva

minimizes tooth decay,neutralizes gastric acid refluxed in lowe esophagus

9

what can we taste

carbs fats
not protein

10

what is serous saliva

water, electrolytes and enzymes

11

what is mixed saliva

viscous rich in mucin glycoproteins

12

how do ductal cells contribute to saliva

modify the secretion by adding electrolytes, Na Cl reabsorb K and HCO3

13

why is saliva hypotonic

dissolve food

14

salivary ducts are impermeable to what

H2O

15

what are the transporters in the ductal cells

Na/H exchange
Cl/HCO3 exchange
H/K exchange

16

what transporters are on the basolateral membranes of ductal cells

NaK ATPase and Cl channels

17

how do NaCl levels compare in saliva to plasma

lower in saliva because readily abosrbed

18

how do K HCO3 levels compare in saliva to plasma

higher in saliva because net secretion

19

at what rate does saliva resemble plasma [ ]

at high flow rates because less time to modify

20

what controls salivary secretion

ANS mainly parasympathetic

21

what inhibits salivary secretion

sleep, fear, anti-cholinergics, anti-depressants, dehydration and fatigue

22

what modulates salivary secretion

blood secretion, myoepithelial cell contraction, hormonal secretion

23

What is xerostomia

dry mouth from absent saliva produciton

24

what causes xerostomia

drugs radiation, autoimmune disease

25

what is sjogren syndrome

autoimmune that targets lacrimal and salivary glands

26

Tx for drooling

anticholinergics and surgical removal of sublingual glands

27

how does CF affect saliva

elevated Na and Ca and protein in saliva, sweat, pancreatic fluid and bronchial secretion

28

Addisons changes saliva how

increase Na from decrease in Na reabsorption

29

how does primary aldosteronism and cushings change saliva

decrease Na in saliva, increase the amount that is absorbed
increase K levels

30

how does digoxin change saliva

increase Ca and K

31

describe musculature of esophagus

upper third is skeletal muscle voluntary control
middle third is mixture skeletal and smooth
lower third is smooth muscle regulated by ANS and enteric nervous plexus

32

describe control of LES

tonically constricted from sphincter pressure by diaphragm
relaxes in response to swallowing mediated by vagal stimulation and intrinsic properties of the sphincter itself

33

what is barrets esophagus

columnar cells replace squamous cells in adaptation to chronic acid exposure

34

what are causes of dysphagia

structural
functional- abnormal reflex, nuero defect
disease state: neuro, stroke, parkinsons, myasthenia gravis, xerostomia

35

what is achalasia

complete lack of peristalsis
LES does not relax and increased LES Pressure

36

what causes achalasia

nerve degeneration
lack of NO synthease, VIP
Chagas disease

37

what has "bird beak appearance on barium radiography?

achalasia

38

what is transient relaxation of
LES

not assoc with pharyngeal contraction or esophageal peristalsis and persists more than 10 sec

39

cessation of chlinergic activity and release of NO and VIP affect LES how

relaxation

40

what is cause of LES incompetence

idiopathic

41

What are diffuse esophageal spasms

irregular, uncoordinated contractions of esophagus

42

what is cause of diffuse esophageal spasms

disruption of nerve activity that coordinates swallowing action of the esophagus

43

what does diffuse esophageal spasms look like on CXR

corkscrew

44

what is a hiatal hernia

protrusion of upper part of stomach into thorax through a tear or wekaness in diaphragm