Choudhury II Flashcards Preview

Year2 GI Exam I > Choudhury II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Choudhury II Deck (52)
1

proximal portionof stomach secretes what

HCl, pepsinogen, IF, mucus, bicarb, water

2

distal portion of stomach secretes what

gastrin, mucus, somatostatin (endocrine paracrin actions)

3

parietal or oxyntic cells secrete what

HCl, IF

4

chief cells secrete what

pepsinogen, renin

5

endocrine cells in stomach secrete what

ECL cells that secrete histamine
G cells secrete gastrin
D cells secrete somatostatin

6

what is role of HCl

protein breakdown, pepsinogen activation, kills most microbe

7

peptic chief cells secrete what

pepsinogen and its converted to pepsin

8

what is the purpose of the mucus that is secreted by mucous cells

lubrication to protect epithelial cells

9

pyloric glands are where

antrum and pyloric regions of the stomach
have G cells

10

what does gastrin do

stimulates pareital cells HCl and peptic cells (pepsinogen)

11

describe the mucus secreted by surface epithelial cells in stomach and the neck cells

surface is thick alkaline mucus
neck cells secrete thin watery mucus

12

chief cells secrete what

pepsinogen and gastric lipase

13

what stimulates D cells to secrete somatostatin

acid in the stomach

14

how do H+ and Na+ levels in the stomach change as the rate of gastric secretion increases

inverse relationship, more H+ less Na+ the faster the secretion

and- always high in Cl, always low in K

15

H+ concentration in gastric lumen compared to blood

3M fold higher

16

key player in maintaining low pH in gastric lumen

H-K ATPase on the parietal membrane facing gastric lumen

17

What stimulate parietal cells to secrete acid

ACh, gastrin and histamine

18

What R does ACh bind to

M3

19

what R does gastrin bind to

CCKb

20

what R does histamine bind to

H2

21

what are the inhibitors on parietal cells

somatostatin and PGs

22

what are the phases of gastric secretion
which has most acid secretion?

cephalic phase
gastric phase- most acid secretion
Intestinal phase

23

What is a vagotomy and what is it used for?
side effects?

cutting vagus nerve
inhibits gastric acid secretion
used to Tx peptic ulcers
side effects: delay in gastric emptying, diarrhea

24

what is a selective vagotom=y

cutting vagal nerves supplying parietal cells

25

what occurs in cephalic phase

conditioned reflexes from impulses to medulla stimulate vagus n
Ach release
gastrin release
pepsinogen release
inhibition D cells

26

what hormones does the duodenum release in intestinal phase?
role?

secretin
GIP
CCK
inhibit acid secretion

27

what stimulates cephalic phase

sight, smell, taste, chewing

28

what is rennin or chymosin

made by gastric chief cells in infants
proteolytic enzyme that causes milk to curdle in stomach so that it is retained and released more slowly

29

what replaces rennin in adults

pepsinogen

30

What converts pepsinogen to pepsin

pepsin and HCl

31

what stimulates secretion pepsinogen

vagal sitmulation, mediated by Ach
Direct response to gastric acid

32

what is pernicious anemia

absence of IF or B12 leading to neurological disturbances like paresthesias

33

what can cause B12 deficiency

decreased dietary intake
decreased absorption (decreased IF or autoAb)

34

the mucus layer on gastric surface is a diffusion barrier for what

H and pepsin

35

how does aspirin lead to ulcer formation

suppresses the protective mucosal barrier production

36

cycle of acid causing mucosal damage

acid and pepsin break through mucosal barrier and the acid stimulates histamine release which then causes more acid release = viscous cycle

37

what is more common gastric or duodenal ulcer disease

duodenal

38

what is zollinger ellison syndrome

gastrin secreting tumor

39

What pathogen causes gastric ulcers and how

H pylor because increases gastrin secretion

40

what is used to evaluate gastric function

serum gastrin levels and gastric acid secretion

41

what is used clinically to stimulate acid secretion

pentagastrin

42

what is atrophic gastritis

chronic inflammation, with lack of parietal cells, of gastric mucosa from H pylori

43

serum gastrin way elevated by basal acid output and after pentagastrin remain zero
most likely?

pernicious anemia

44

serum gastrin super elevated with increased before and after pentagastrin aci output
most likely?

gastric ulcer

45

what part of H pylori leads to gastric ulcers

mucosal damage

46

what component of H pylori escapes pH

urease neutralizes gastric acid

47

What muscarinic antagonists are used in PUD

atropine and scopolamine

48

what H2 antagonists are used in PUd

cimetidine ranitidine

49

what PPI are used in PUD

omeprazole and lansoprazole

50

what drug is a PGE1 analog

misoprostol

51

How is sucralfate useful in PUD

polymerizes on GI luminal surface to form protective gel like coating on ulcers

52

what Antacids are usedul in PUD

Al(OH)3
Mg (OH)2
CaCo3