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Flashcards in chp 1 evolution and themes of biology Deck (23):

All organisms on your campus make up?



define ecosystem

all living and non living components of the environment with which life interacts.


Define Population

All livings individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area. ex. forest is a community whereas the sugar maple trees are population of the forest.


What is the correct sequence of lvls of lifes hierarchy proceeding downward from an individual animal?

Nervous system, Brain, Nervous tissue, Nerve cell


What is not an observation of inference on which darwins theory of natural selection is based on?
What r observations?

Poorly adapted individuals never produce offsprings.
Which is: 1) There r heritable variations among individuals
2) bcuz overproduction of offspring, there is competition for limited resources.
3) A population can become adapted to its environment over time.


System biology is mainly an attempt to ______ ______?

Understand the behavior of entire biological system by studying interactions among its component parts.


Define emergent properties

Cell ---> Tissue ----> Organ ---> Organ System ---> Animal
It's the property where living things become more and more complex as it goes from cellular level (exp humans are made of cells) to organ system (exp humans are made of organ system composed of millions of cells).
It's based on the concept that "the whole is greater than the composition of its parts." Exp: heart is made of cells only, but if you just have heart cells (sum of its parts) it won't do anything but if the whole heart is there, it will perform the function of pumping blood (the whole is greater).


each lvl of biology organization has emergent properties.
Explain and give ex.

The whole is better than the parts.
Emergent properties are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
ex. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast, but it will not take place in a disorganized test tube mixture of chlorophyll and other chloroplast molecules.


Are Cells are the basic units of structure and function. Why
Explain and give an ex.

Because without cells, we cannot reproduce, produce energy, grow and develop, and do the neccesary characteristics of life; therefore, without cells, we would be unliving, making them the structure of function in organisms
1) All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism.
3. Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells.


The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA.
explain and give ex.

When a cell divides the DNA is replicated (copied) and each offspring receives an identical set of chromosomes from the parent cell.


Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization.
Example and explain.

Knowing the function of something provides insight into its structure and organization.
A single leaf from a tree can be thin and flat to maximize the capture of the suns light by the chloroplast to help it grow.


Organisms are open systems that interact continuously w/ their environments. Give an ex.

for ex. between a sea turtle and the so called cleaner fish. the cleaner fish eats parasites tht would harm the turtle. the fish gains a meal and protection from the turtle.


How do scientist think of evolution about organisms? Give ex.

evolution is the one idea tht makes logical sense of everything we know about organisms.
ex . sea horses jackrabbits , hummingbirds , and giraffes all look very different but their skeletons are organized in the same basic way.


Regulatory mech. ensure dynamic balance in living systems.



Diversity and unity are dual faces of life on earth.

Earth is diverse we have a species range from about 10 million to over 100 million.
Unity is out there as well. for ex similar skeletal structures of different vertebrate animals and the universal genetic language. DNA


is science a process of inquiry tht includes repeatable observations and testable hypothesis.

Yes The process is necessarily repetitive : in testing a hypothesis, more observations may inspire revision of the original hypothesis. Scientist test hypothesis' over and over to best estimate the laws of governing nature.


Are science and technology functions of society?

Yes, through each scientist sometimes employ similar inquiry patterns but basic goals differ.
Science- is to understand natural phenomena.
Technology- is to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose.
for ex. Biologist seek discoveries of the world as engineers seek new inventions.


Define living things? and what is the fundamental unit of life?

Living things - We recognize life by what living things do.
1)Exchange energy and matter with the environment.
3)Reproduce heritable material / Genome / DNA
Fundamental unit of life are CELLS


Define Biology.

The scientific study of life.


Describe the relationship between structure and function in biology.

Structures determines function in biology. examples of structure-function relationships in living organisms. How specific molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, and body structures are structured to support the functions that they perform.


Why are evolutionary facts considered a fact? but the process of natural selection is considered a theory.

Evolutionary facts- are facts because scientists can accurately account for and label similarities from common ancestors between various different species.
Natural Selection- is defined as evolutionary adaption. It is a theory because it has been observed and tested with the results supporting the hypothesis countless times.


What is the difference between hypothesis and theory,.

Hypothesis is a tentative answer to a well formed question.
Theory is a tested and verified hypothesis supported by evidence that explains a phenomenon we observe.


What are the three general approaches to science?

Reductionistic - studies the parts to make sense and understand the whole.
Holism - Focus' on emergent properties (takes a look at the whole to understand the parts)
Systems biology or integrative - it will look at both the parts tht mnake the whole or the whole to understand the parts.