Flashcards in Chp 6 cells and membranes Deck (25):
the membrane-enclosed structure within eukaryotic cells
define prokaryotic cells
Pro, meaning before and kary, meaning nucleus. before the nucleus. first cell known small and simple
meaning true nucleus
define plasma membrane
this acts as a fence with gates where a selective barrier allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients and wastes to service the entire cell.
define cytoplasm in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
the interior of either type of cell is the cytoplasm.
in eukaryotic cells this refers to only the region between the nucleus and plasma membrane.
in prokaryotic cells it is not formless soup but relatively organized into different regions
semi liquid matrix
reinforces cell shape; functions in cell movement.
what does the nucleus do?
it contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cells.
What organelles are in the nucleus?
what does the nuclear envelope do?
The Nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus separating its contents from the cytoplamsm; by consisting of two membranes each a phospholipid bilayer and within are nuclear pores - big enough for mRNA and Ribosomal subunits.
Inside nuclear envelope are Nuclear Lamina - Keratin, also Nuclear Matrix - Keratin
what are the functions of the nucleolus?
AKA - Protein factory. Synthesis Each subunit rRNA and Protein
• Ribosome(made in the nucleolous) - Synthesizes proteins (Protein Factory)no structural differences
• Consists of Lg and small Subunits (each w/ rRNA and proteins)
• From Nucleolus
• Free Ribosomes - unattached "free" in Cytosol
• Bound Ribosomes - attached to Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (Rough er) makes proteins associated with membarnes (membrane bound organelles or secretion)
○ Endomembrane system
§ Several membrane bound organelles
define and determine the functions of Chromatin?*****
Chromatin - the complex of DNA and proteins making up chromosomes is called Chromatin.
What are the functions , parts, structure of ribosomes
These are the cellular components tht carry out protein synthesis.
Ribosomes are made in the nucleus
Free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol and are used to catalyze the first step of sugar breakdown
Bound ribosomes are attached to the ER or nuclear envelope, make proteins tht are destined for insertion into membranes, ex. lysosomes or secretion.
What are vesicles and what are their functions
Sacs made up of membrane
These transport proteins into membranes and organelles or out of the cell
What makes up the ER
Endoplasmic means, within the cytoplasm Reticulum means "little net
cisternal space it the inside space
Functions, parts, where does it exist of the smooth ER
The name smooth is bcuz the lack of ribosomes attached to the wall.
Functions in diverse metabolic processes. Such as, synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs / poisons and storage of calcium ions.
Enzymes are important to the smooth ER for the synthesis of lipids, oils, steroids and new membrane phospholipids.
Synthesizes sex hormones
Functions, parts, where does it exist of the rough ER
The name Rough ER comes from the bound ribosomes .
many cells secrete proteins tht are produced by ribosomes.
Produces secretory proteins
The RER is a membrane factory for the cell. is grows in place by adding membrane proteins and phospholipids to its own membrane.
Functions, parts, where does it exist of the Golgi Apparatus
Golgi is a warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and even some manufacturing.
Here products from the ER are modified and stored then sent to other destinations.
Golgi is especially extensive in cells specialized for secretion.
Cis and trans face. Cis means same side and receives and trans, meaning opposite side ships. give rise to new vesicle also.
As products make their way though the Golgi they r modified.
Lastly Molecular Identification tags such as phosphate grps aiding the vesicle where to go.
Functions, parts, where does it exist of the Lysosomes
Is a membrane sac of hydrolytic enzymes tht many eukaryotic cells use to digest(Hydrolyze) lysosomal enzymes like to work in acidic conditions found in lysosomes.
Hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomal membrane are made by the RER and then transferred to the Golgi.
Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion in a variety of circumstances.
A food Vacuole in Phagocytosis will then fuse with a lysosome.
Lysosomes break big things IE polymers and breaks them down into monomers to be able to pass through and into the cytosol .
What is the process of (Amoebas) Unicellular eukaryotes eat by engulfing smaller organisms or food particles.
Define Vacuoles and their function
Are large vesicles derived from the ER and Golgi.
It is selective in transporting solutes. The contents inside differ in composition of the cytosol .
Food Vacuoles formed by Phagocytosis
Contractile Vacuoles - pump out excessive water of the cell.
Central Vacuoles - In matures plants, develops by coalescene of smaller vacuoles.
Functions, parts, where does it exist of the Mitochondria
The mitochondria and Chloroplasts convert energy to forms tht cells can use for work.
Mitochondria - Are the sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process tht uses oxygen to drive the generation of ATP by extractiong energy from sugars, fats and other fuels.
It is found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. a cell can have one or many. This number is correlated to the cells metabolic activity.
Functions, parts, where does it exist of the Chloroplasts
Converts energy to forms the cells can use for work.
Found in plants and algae are sites of photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts convert solar energy into chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to dtive the synthesis of organic cmpds such as sugars from CO2 and H2O.
What is the Endosymbiont Theory
This theory states tht an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using non-photosynthetic prokaryotic cell. Eventually, the engulfed cell formed a relationship with the host cell in which it was enclosed, becoming endosymbiont (a cell living within another cell)