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Flashcards in Chp 6 starts with cell theory Deck (59):

Define Tetravalence

Tetravalence - Is when an atom has 4 electrons in its valence shell.


What makes carbons tetravalnce shell so important to Chemistry

Carbon has 4 Ve- so it can covalently bond with up to four other atoms / molecules. This allows carbon to branch off and create complex molecules.


C & C Inorganic and Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is said to be the study of compounds containing carbon.


Describe and illustrate length of carbon chains

Carbon chains i dont think have a limit and vary between molecules


Describe the arrangement of double bonds between carbons

dbl bonds which vary in number and location


What is the Hydrolysis rxn?

Hydrolysis is the addition of water to break down a polymer by a single monomer at a time
HO-(1)-(2)-(3)-(4)-H + H2O
H2O is used to attack the bond between 3 & 4 thus breaking it into a polymer with a monomer.
HO-(1)-(2)-(3)-H + HO-(4)-H


Dehydration or condensation rxn

This is when water is removed in the creation of a polymer from a monomer leaving water as a biproduct.
HO-(1)-(2)-(3)-H + HO-(4)-H --> HO-(1)-(2)-(3)-(4)-H +H2O


Define Monomers

Monomers are the repeating units tht serve as the building blocks to polymers and can be Carbohydrates. Proteins . Nucleic Acids


Define Polymers

A polymer is a LONG molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked together by covalent bonds. Consists of Carbohydrates , Proteins and Nucleic Acids.


Define Dimer

2 monomers attached together


What are the three classes of macromolecules tht consist of polymers

Proteins - is a biologically functional molecule made up of one or more polypeptides. Each folded and coiled into specific 3D shapes.
Carbohydrates - include sugars and polymers of sugars. the simplest carbohydrate is Monosaccharides. These are monomers from which more complex carbohydrates are formed. Disaccharides (2 bonded together. Polysaccharide many bonded together.)
Nucleic Acids - Are polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides. Nucleotides are composed of three parts : 5 carbon sugar AKA Pentose, Nitrogen-containing base, and one or more phosphate grps.


Define Polypeptide

A polymer of Amino Acids


Name the three monomers and what they do and the bonds associcated with them

1)The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides - is composed of a 5 carbon sugar called pentose, a nitrogenous-containing base, and one or more phosphate grps nucleotides to polynucleotides use dehydration rxn and are joined by phosphodiester linkage.

2)Of polysaccharides: monosaccharides. - Emperical formula oh CH2O Glucose is the most common monosaccharide. joined by glycosidic linkage. Glucose C6H12O6 with aldoses( C=O on the end of the chain) will form a ring with itself C1 attacks C5 OH. Carbon 5's H on OH will be relocated to C1's C=O making a single bond their. Then The newly fromed OH can attach itself with another glucose at its OH by dehydration making a glycosidic linkage.

3)Of polypeptides (the chains that make up proteins): amino acids. Amino Acids are Amino grp NH2 combined with a carboxyl COOH with a central C H2N-CRH-COOH they are joined together by the peptide bond. they link together by dehydration rxn with an H from NH2 and an OH from COOH.


What characteristics define lipids

1)they do not include true polymers
2)They are generally not big enough to be considered macromolecules
3)Compounds called liquids are grouped together because they mix poorly with water or if at all.
4)mostly consist of hydrocarbon regions.
5) lipids are varied in forms and function.


Name 3 types of lipids

Fats , Phospholipids and Steroids


Fats consist of....

two kinds of smaller molecules, glycerol and fatty acids.
Glycerol is an alcohol, each of its 3 C's bears an OH
Fatty Acid has a long skeletal structure usually 16 C or 18 C in length. The carbon at one end is Carboxyl COOH which gives it the name fatty acid. the rest is hydrocarbons.


Phospholipids consists of....

Phospholipids are essential for cells because they r the major constituents of cell membranes. Glycerol has two fatty acids attached to it with a phosphate grp They now form bi layers two of these phospholipids come together with the hydrophobic ends in the middle and the hydrophilic ends on the outside. this makes up the outer shell of a cell.


Steroids consists of....

Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings. Cholesterol is a type of steroid. It is a common component of of animal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids, such as vertebrate sex hormones are synthesized.


Give the name of this functional grp as well as its function

Hydroxyl grp
Its polar due to O. It forms H-bonds w/ H2O helps dissolve compounds such as sugars


Give the name of this functional grp as well as its function

Carbonyl - sugars w/ ketone grps (C=O not at the end) are called ketoses. Sugars w/ Aldehyde grps (C=O at the end) are called aldoses.
Carbonyl grps are used to form rings within itself to make a more stable sugar. these r used to bond together other sugars called glycosidic linkage


Give the name of this functional grp as well as its function

Carboxyl - acts as an acid (it can donate H+) bcuz the covalent bond between O and H is polar.
they r used to form amino acids tht link together to form polypetides


Give the name of this functional grp as well as its function

Amino grp - acts as a base, it can pick up an H+ from surrounding solution
Help form polypeptides


Give the name of this functional grp as well as its function

Sulfhydryl grp - Two -SH grps can react, forming a cross link tht helps stabilize protein structure. (Hair protein,


Give the name of this functional grp as well as its function
PO4 / PO3

Phosphate grp - contributes - charge (1 when on the inside of a chain or 2 when on the end.) When attached, confers on a molecule the ability to react w/ H2O


Give the name of this functional grp as well as its function

Methyl grp. - Affects the expression of genes when on DNA or on protein bound DNA. Affects the shape and function of male and female sex hormones.


What are the four lvls of structure found in protein.

Primary structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure


Define the Primary structure found in proteins, which type of proteins are associated with this lvl and explain the critical importance of the Primary structure.

It is a sequence of amino acids. the precise primary structure of a protein is determined by inherited genetic information. This primary structure dictates secondary and tertiary structure due to the chemical nature of the backbone and the side chains (r grps) of the amino acids along the polypeptides. in other words it gives structure which is function


Define the secondary structure found in proteins, which type of proteins are associated with this lvl

found in most proteins, consists of coils and folds due to specific sequence of H-Bonds along the polypeptides backbone ( Localized folding due to H-Bond / alpha helix or Beta sheets
alpha helix - a delicate coil held together by H-bonding by every 4th Amino Acid.
Beta Sheets - are 2 or more segments of polypeptide chain lying side by side and are connected by H-bonding.


Define the tertiary structure found in proteins, which type of proteins are associated with this lvl

is the overall shape of the polypeptide resulting from interactions between side chains of various amino acids.


Define the Quaternary structure found in proteins, which type of proteins are associated with this lvl

various bonds between polypeptides . results in 2 or more structures come together. this is the overall structure tht results from the aggregation of these polypeptides subunits.


What happens when proteins are heated? placed in acid? How does this affect function

Heat - it is denatured heating affects the secondary structure of proteins, causing changes in the shape of the molecule.
The Acid disrupts the bonds between the amino acids that make up the tertiary structure of the protein. The disruption causes the protein to denature which causes a change in shape of the protein.
When a protein is denatured it can no longer function. it is unfolded and it will hav no function


What are the functions of Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids program Genes which carry DNA. This is what shapes the primary structure.
They serve as the base of neurotransmitters.


Spell DNA

De Oxy Ribo Nucleic Acid
Deoxyribonucleic Acid


Spell RNA

Ribo Nucleic Acid
Ribonucleic Acid


Describe monomers of nucleic acids and how they are arranged as polymers

The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides - is composed of a 5 carbon sugar called pentose, a nitrogenous-containing base, and one or more phosphate grps nucleotides to polynucleotides use dehydration rxn and are joined by phosphodiester linkage.
A phosphate grp tht links sugars of 2 nucleotides. (repeats) pg 85/86


What is central dogma and why is this term not favored by currenmt scientists.

The central dogma of molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation, by which the information in genes flows into proteins: DNA → RNA → protein.
Bcuz scientists believe now tht DNA (Inheritence) is passed down Than DNA--(transcription)--> RNA --(translation)--> polypeptides or proteins (20Amino Acids)


Define Isomer

Compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties


Define Enantiomer

Isomers that are mirror images of each other that are differ in shape due to the presence of asymmetric carbon, one that is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms


Define Monosaccharide

1. A simple form of carbohydrate; therefore, it cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis.

2. A simple sugar. (example: fructose, glucose, ribose)


Define Disaccharide

Consists of two Monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage due to dehydration


Define Polysaccharides

Are Macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages.


Define Fatty Acid

Has a long carbon skeleton, usually 16 - 18 carbon atoms in length


Define Amino Acid

An organic molecule with both an amino group and a carboxyl group


Define Phospholipid Bilayer

The bilayer structure formed by self-assembly of phospholipids in an aqueous environment


Define Organic

Involving organisms or the products of their life processes.


Define Triglyceride

Three fatty acid molecules are each joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, a bond formed by a dehydration reaction between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group.


Define Structural Formula

Skeletal structure


Define Nucleic Acid

Polymers made of monomers called nucleotides


Define Molecular Formula

Each individual and the numbers of atoms that are in there. EX: H2O, CH4


Define Dipeptide

Its molecules either contain two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond or one amino acid with two peptide bonds


Define Glycerol

Three-carbon-chain compound that bonds with the fatty acid to create a fat.


What are three parts to the "cell theory" of biology

1) all living things are made of cells
2) Cells come from other cells and give rise to new cells
3) Metabolism (Living process) occurs inside cells


How are virus' exceptions to this theory?
How do they support this theory?

Cells (Virus' are not made of cells) they must take over a cell to reproduce
Reproduce(Virus' cant reproduce on their own)
Self Organize(Virus' cannot self organize)
Ability to evolve(Virus' can evolve)


what role does the plasma membrane play to protect the cell?

it regulates what goes into and out of the cell. Such as oxygen, gas, nutrients, and waste. The surface area to volume ratio its critical.
sugars cannot go through the gates


How does the interaction between membrane surface area and cell volume limit the size of cells?

for each square micrometer of membrane, only a limited amount of a particular substance can cross per second. So the ratio of Surface area to volume is critical.


What three organelles contain DNA?



Describe the three parts of the cytoskeleton.
what r they made of
where r they found

Microtubules - Made with Alpha and Beta tubulin and is the thickest (Hollow tubes) functions: maintenance of cell shape. cell motility as in cillia or flagella. Chromosomes movements in cell division; organelle movements.
Microfilaments/ Actin Filaments - made with two intertwined strands of actin and are the thinnest and are found towards the outside of the cell
Functions: maintenace of cell shape; changes in cell shape; muscle contractions; cell motility ; division of animal cells
Intermediate Filaments - made with keratin (fibrous proteins coiled into cables) and in the middle w/ size Functions: maintenance of cell shape, anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelle; formation of nuclear lamina


what are motor molecules and where are they found

motor molecules help move the proteins along the microtubules and microfilaments. found along microtubules and micro filaments.


compare and contrast Cilia and Flagella
Which has 9 + 2 arrangement
Give ex of each

Cilia is small and many like our lungs and helps move things out of our lungs.
Flagella are larger and singular like sperm.
Both have 9 + 2 arrangement