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Flashcards in Chronic disease, GI anatomy Deck (84)
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1

What is the primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body's smaller arteries

aorta

2

Arteries

Vessels that carry blood from heart -> tissues

3

Veins

Vessels that carry blood from tissues -> heart

4

Blood leaving from RIGHT of heart

Goes to lungs -> left side of heart

5

Blood leaving from LEFT of heart

Out of aorta -> arteries -> rest of body

6

The blood that GOES to the digestive system

Artery > capillaries > reaches cells

7

The blood that LEAVES the digestive system

Blood collected from GI tract > hepatic portal vein > liver capillaries > hepatic vein > returns blood to heart

8

Hepatic vein

Collects blood from liver capillaries and returns blood to heart

9

Thoracid duct

- Largest volume of blood before going to heart so everything gets diluted
- main lymphatic vessel that collects lymph and drains into the left subclavian vein

10

The digestive tract receives __ blood

ARTERY

11

How many inputs of blood does the liver have?

2:
1 rich in nutrients
1 rich in oxygen

12

6 functions of GI tracts

- ingestion
- mechanical processing
- digestion
- secretion
- absorption
- excretion

13

Which nutrients enter lymphatic vessels?

Fat-soluble

14

Salivary amylase

Starch-digesting enzymes that function at pH 6-7

15

Other functions of GI tracts (5)

- barrier
- immunological
- endocrine
- neural
- gut microbiota

16

Diaphragm

- primary muscle used in respiration
- separates abdomen from thoracic cavity
- tough muscles, can contract
- inspiration : contraction (pushes down)

17

Food goes to the oesophagus in which form

BOLUS

18

How many sphincters does the esophagus have?

2: upper and lower/cardiac

19

Muscles in esophagus

circular muscle
longitudinal
smooth internal lining

20

Peristalsis

tightening of long muscles and relaxing of circular muscles causes the content to be propelled
VOLUNTARY

21

Reverse-peristalsis

vomiting

22

Layers of muscle in the stomach

circular, longitudinal, diagonal muscle

23

What organ begins digestion?

Stomach, is controlled by gastrin

24

Where does chyme become liquified?

In stomach, by gastric juices

25

4 functions of stomach

1. storage of ingested food
2. mechanical breakdown of ingested food to peristalsis to chyme
3. Gastrin secretion
4. Production of intrinsic factors

26

pH of stomach

1.5-2.0

27

What are intrinsic factors?

Glycoprotein
required fro absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine

28

What are the 4 sphincters

- cardiac : btwn esoph - stomach
- pyloric : btwn stomach - small intestine
- ileocecal : btw ileum - large intestine
- anus : at the end

29

Which sphincter do we have voluntary control over?

Anus

30

What are the 3 GI hormones

- gastrin
- secretin
- cholecystokinin (CCK)

31

Which hormone :
- responds to food in the stomach
- is secreted from stomach wall
- stimulates stomach glands to secrete HCL

GASTRIN

32

Which hormone :
- is stimulated by chyme in the s intestine
- is secreted from duodenum wall
- stimulates the pancreases to secrete bicarbonate juices

SECRETIN

33

When HCl is secreted in the stomach, the pH goes back to 1.5 and the system adjusts by stoping release of gastrin, this is called :

negative feedback

34

Which hormone :
- responds to fat/protein in the chyme (intestine)
- is secreted from intestinal walls
- stimulates the gallbladder to contract bile
and stimulates the pancreas to secrete its pancreatic juice

CHOLECYSTOKININ (CCK)

35

What hormone slows down digestion

CCK

36

Bicarbonate : base/acid
HCL : base/acid

- base
- very strong acid

37

Secretion of HCl is done thanks to

Gastrin

38

What is released from stomach, is cleaved by Hal to become active and is the precursor of pepsin

pepsinogen

39

What organs/parts are retroperitoneal

pancreas, duodenum, rectum

40

Mensentery

Internal organ, folds of connective tissus that supports and connect the intestines to the dorsal abdominal wall

41

Where is most of the absorption

small intestine

42

How are nutrients absorbed

- simple diffusion
- facilitated diffusion
- active transport

43

simple diffusion

- not very efficient
- no energy cost
- cross freely
water, small lipids

44

facilitated diffusion

- doesn't require energy
- protein carrier transports nutrients
water-soluble vitamins

45

active transport

- requires energy
- very efficient
- carrier loads nutrients outside cell
- moves against a concentration gradient
glucose, amino acids

46

A villus

Finger-like projection that covers inner wall folds of intestine
Each villus is covered with microvilli
Between villi are crypt glands, they secrete intestinal juices

47

Hepatic portal vein carries

water-soluble nutrients absorbed

48

Which organ absorbs water, electrolytes, vitamins and is held by the mesentery

the colon

49

Does the large intestine have villi

NO

50

inflammatory bowel disease that causes irritation, inflammation and ulcers in the lining

Ulcerative colitis

51

Goblet cells

Secrete mucus
Live 3 days
Also present in lungs, nose, sinuses

52

__ transports nutrients to a network of capillaries and fine lymphatic vessels called lacteals close to its surface

villus

53

The folds of the mucosa of the small intestine

plicae circulares

54

Function of plicae, villi, microvilli

to increase the amount of surface area available for the absorption of nutrients.

55

__ breaks down some carbohydrates (notably starch) into oligosaccharides.

Pancreatic amylase

56

Prebiotics

food not digested in small intestine
is used as food for bacteria in the colon

57

Probiotics

micro-organisms in foods & supplement that in sufficient quantities are beneficial to health

58

Vitamins produced by the colon's bacteria

- biotin
- folate
- pantothenoic acid
- riboflavin
- thiamin
- B6
- B12
- K

59

Vitamin A and K are produced in

colon

60

Consequence of having a low blood pH

protein conformation change, slightly denatured

61

Food stays __ hrs in the small intestine

7-8

62

Food stays __ hrs in the colon

12-14

63

Food stays __ hrs in the stomach

1-2

64

GERD

= Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease
stomach acid chyme goes through oesophagus due to a lose sphincter

65

Enzyme made in liver that detoxifies toxin

CATALASE
H202--> H20+02

66

Where is bile stocked ?

gallbladder

67

Bile

emulsifies fats and oils so that enzymes can have access and digest

68

Where is bile made ?

Liver

69

Is pancreas endocrine or exocrine?

BOTH :
- endocrine - produces insulin
- exocrine - excretes secretin

70

What secretes secretin?

pancreas

71

Pancreatic fluid =

bicarbonate, proteases, lipases, amylases

72

Atherosclerosis

build up of plaques in blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients (arteries)
arteries become stiff, rigid, non expandable, have a narrow lumen

73

What does atherosclerosis cause

- less blood flow, higher blood pressure, increase in clotting
- cardiovascular diseases

74

Different types of atherosclerosis

- Coronary Heart Disease : narrows the coronary artery (near heart), heart attack can occur, won't supply O2 and nutrients, surgery can bypass it
- Peripheral Artery Disease : narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to limbs, extremeties

75

Symptoms of atherosclerosis

None, can be thin and have it

76

Exchange of 02 and C02

- in tissues : RBS give O2 and absorb CO2
- in lungs : RBCs give CO2 and absorb O2 from air

77

Measuring atherosclerosis

- cardiac output : volume of blood pumped by heart within a specific period of time
- peripheral resistance : resistance to pumped blood in the small arterial branches that carry blood to tissues

78

Non modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis

- age
- sex
- genetics

79

Modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis

- smoking
- stress
- sedentary behaviour
- atherogenic dite
- obesity
- hypertension
- high LDL/low HDL
- high TG
- high homocysteine
- diabetes
- chronic inflammation

80

Between a man older than 55 years of age and a women older than 55 years of age, which one has the higher risk of atherosclerosis?

Men have a higher risk than women

81

atherogenic diet

high energy
high sat fat
high alcohol
low fiber
high GI
low (high) vitamins/minerals

82

Metabolic syndrome

any 3 of these factors:
- abdominal obesity > 40inches, > 35 inches
- triglycerides ≧ 150mg/dL
- HDL <40mg/dL (men), <50mg (women)
- Blood pressure > 120/80
- Fasting glucose : ≧ 100mg/dL

83

What would you advise the population to prevent chronic disease?

Make dietary changes to prevent disease
Screening tests

84

At what pH does pepsin work?

Low pH , it becomes inactive and digested when it enters the high pH of the small intestine