Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (93)
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1

Normal level of glucose in blood

4-6mmol/L
(fasting)

2

AI for fiber for men

38g/day

3

AI for fiber for women

25g/day

4

DV for fiber

25g per 2000kcal

5

The pancreas releases __ when there is an increase in blood glucose

INSULIN

6

The pancreas releases __ when there is a decrease in blood glucose

GLUCAGON

7

Glycemic load

glycemic index x grams of carbs

8

Glycemic Index

Scale that ranks a carbohydrate-containing food or drink by how much it raises blood sugar levels after it is eaten or drank

9

Glycemic response

extent to which a food raises blood glucose concentration and elicits insulin response

10

AMDR for carbs

45-65%
= 225g-325g

11

AMDR for fat

20-35%
= 44g-78g

12

AMDR for protein

10-35%
= 50g-175g

13

RDA of carbs (glucose) needed for brain

130g

14

High GI foods

processed foods (white bread, ice cream, coke), ready-to-eat cereal (corn flakes)

15

Low GI foods

lentils, beens, hummus, peanut, milk products

16

Moderate GI foods

whole grain, fruits

17

Main source of carbs

plants, thanks to photosynthesis

18

What is the chief source of energy, preferred source for the brain, nerve cells, red blood cells

Glucose

19

Monosaccharides

- glucose
- fructose
- galactose

20

Which monosaccharide is a pentagone and is the sweetest ?

fructose

21

Which monosaccharide is part of every disaccharide?

Glucose

22

How are disaccharides formed?

Condensation reaction, water is released

23

When and how are disaccharides broken down?

During digestion, by hydrolysis

24

Disaccharides

- Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
- Maltose (glucose + glucose)
- Lactose (glucose + galactose)

25

Example of maltose, sucrose, lactose

maltose : barley
sucrose : table sugar
lactose : milk

26

Polysaccharides

- Glycogen
- Starch
- Fiber

27

Glycogen

Storage from of glucose in humans
Highly branched
Not in plants

28

Starch

Storage form of glucose in plants
Long, branched and unbranched chains
In grains, legumes, root crops
ex: amylopectin (branched), amylose (unbranched)

29

Fiber

Structural part of plants
Soluble or insoluble
Non digestible
ex: cellulose

30

Calories in fiber

1.5-2.5 kcal/g (avg 2)