A program of activities directed to improving general health also involving specific protection for selected diseases such as immunizations.
A level of care that focuses on early diagnosis, referral and rapid initiation of treatment to stop progression of disease processes.
A level of care which deals with rehabilitation and return of a patient to a status of maximum usefulness with a minimum of risk
A strategy for remembering a new life routine by attaching it to a well-established habit (ex. teaching a patient to take the morning and evening doses of a bid medicaiton with breakfast and dinner)
Involves discussing and establishing mutually agreeable short-term and long-term goals, delineating what the responsibilites of the patient and nurse will be and committing this information and any renegotiations to wirting. The nurse who contracts with the patient is responsible to coordination with other staff
How closely the patient follows the prescribed regimen. Provides the health care team with valuable information but only if the patient is trusting enough to provide truthful, accurate information. Patients often tell health care providers what they think we want to hear because they want to avoid our disapproval.
Modifiable Risk Factors
Causes of chronic illness that can be controlled
Non-modifiable Risk Factors
Causes of chronic illness that can not be controlled (age, gender, genetic predisposition)
Illness that lasts longer than three months and is not self-limiting.
No intention to change the behaviors in the forseeable future. Patients may be unaware that they have a problem, although those around them are all too aware.
What strategies are useful for discussing issues requiring change with those that are in the precontemplative stage?
Discussing the impact on family or community
The stage in which people are aware that a problem exists and are thinking about working on it but have not yet committed to taking actions. Can remain stuck in this stage for years, during which they weight the pros and cons.
What strategies are useful for patients in the contemplation stage?
Focusing on ambivalence (by holding up a mirror to hep the person weigh the pros and cons by discussing the risks, benefits, and barriers to change)
Offering Substitutes (for harm reduction)
Preparation (Ready for Action)
The stage that combines the intention to change behavior within the next month and some small step in the right direction, such as delaying the first cigarette of the day by 30 minutes
What strategies are useful for patients in the preparation stage?
Help the person develop a plan
Suggest a series of gradual changes or a sudden change to the desired behavior and the plan may include how to handle temptations or relapses.
Provide self-help information materials, such as lists of low fat foods
Set a target date
The stage in which individuals modify their behavior for a period of from one day to six months
What strategies are useful for patients in the action stage?
- Identify rewards/recognition
- Identify supportive people
- Finding substitute behaviors
- Avoiding cues/triggers/environments/people likely to contribute to a relapse
- Becoming a role model
The stage of continuation of the change and prevention of relapse. Begins at six months after the behavior change and can last a lifetime.
What strategies are useful for patients in the maintenance stage?
All previous strategies are usuful as well as examining parts of the plan that were helpful, identifying potential and current problems, and revising the plan/resetting the goal if necessary
What strategies are useful for a patient in a relapse?
- Identify triggers and barriers
- Discuss and re-evaluate motivation to change behaviors allowing patient to redevelop strategies to overcome barriers
- Precontemplation and contemplation strategies
- Decrease person's feelings of embarrassment and guilt - support and encouragement may be of help
Assessing and maximizing spiritual beliefs
Patients often obtain comfort from talking about their aith in God or anticipating a special experience during the day such as reading the Bible, savoring a morning cup of coffee, feeling the warmth of the sunshine. Nurses can make these moments possible.