Metabolic Syndrome - EXAM 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Metabolic Syndrome - EXAM 5 Deck (28):

What is the definition of metabolic syndrome?

Metabolic syndrome is a collection of risk factors that increase an individual's chance of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus


How is metabolic syndrome diagnosed?

Any three of five measures are needed for a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome including:

  1. Waist circumference
  2. Triglycerides
  3. HDL cholesterol
  4. BP
    1. Fasting glucose


What are the main underlying risk factors of metabolic syndrome?

Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance


What are other conditions associated with metabolic syndrome?

  1. Physical inactivity
  2. Presence of inflammatory markers
  3. Prothrombotic tendencies
  4. Hormonal imbalance
  5. Aging
  6. Genetic or ethnic predisposition


What conditions are patients with metabolic syndrome at high risk?

  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Diabetes
  • Renal disease


Which lifestyle risk combined with metabolic syndrome puts a patient at even higher risk?



What lifestyle changes are considered important to reduce the risk factors for metabolic syndrome?

Short Term:

  • Reduce LDL cholesterol
  • Stop smoking
  • Lower BP
  • Reduce glucose levels

Long Term:

  • Decrease weight
  • Increase physical activity
  • Healthy diet


How can nurses assist patient with this risky syndrome?

Provide information:

  1. Healthy diet: low saturated fat and promote weight loss
  2. Exercise- assists with weight loss and lowers triglycerides and increases HDL
  3. Positive lifestyle changes


How is a sedentary lifestyle defined?

Demanding physical activity less than 20 minutes per day or less than 3 times per week


What is the nursing care management of pedatric obesity?

  1. Nutritional counseling
  2. Behavioral therapy
  3. Group involvement
  4. Family involvement
  5. Phsyical Activity
  6. PRevention


What silent and life threatening risks is someone at with metabolic syndrome?

  1. Heart disease
  2. Heart attack
  3. Stroke
  4. Diabetes
  5. Peripheral Vascular disease
  6. Kidney Disease
  7. Complications
  8. Death


What is the waist circumference for men?

greater than 40 inches = metabolic syndrome criteria


What is the waist circumference for women?

greater than 35 inches = criteria for metabolic syndrome


What are the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome?

3 of the following:

  1. Men waist greater than 40 inches
  2. Women waist greater than 35 inches
  3. HTN greater than or equal to 130/85mm Hg
  4. High triglyceride level
  5. High fasting blood glucose level greater than or equal to 100 mg/dl
  6. Low HDL level: below 40 for men and 50 for women


What are some ways to reduce risk factors for metabolic syndrome regarding food choices?

  1. Smaller portions
  2. Avoid food high in saturated and trans fat
  3. Eat more fruits and vegetables
  4. Cut back on salt, sugar, and alcohol


What are some ways to reduce risk factors for metabolic syndrome regarding activity?

  1. 30-60 minutes per day
  2. Talk to your health care team before starting
  3. Increase activity in daily life


What are strategies to teaching to metabolic syndrome patients?

  1. Small changes
  2. Get support of family
  3. Avoid tempatations
  4. Food log
  5. Choose low fat versions of your favorite foods


What are the consequences of metabolic syndrome?

  1. Higher rates of cardiovascular disease, including MI and stokes
  2. Higher rates of diabetes
  3. Lower quality of life
  4. High personal and economic status


What are the treatment options for metabolic syndrome?

  1. Normalize and maintain lipid levels
    1. Dietary modification
    2. Statin drugs (lipitor)
  2. BP
    1. Low salt diet
    2. Weight reduction diets
    3. antihtn drugs
      1. ACE inhibitors/ARBs
      2. Beta blockers
      3. Ca channel blockers
      4. Diuretics: thiazides
    4. Waist measurement
    5. Weight reduction
    6. Exercise
    7. Smoking cessation
    8. Education


What risks is a child at for a high BMI?

  1. Depression
  2. Sleep apnea
  3. Asthma
  4. Galls tones
  5. Glomerulosclerosis
  6. Hyperlipidemia
  7. HTN
  8. Coagulopathy
  9. Type 2 diabetes
  10. Precocious puberty
  11. Orthopedic problems


What are some of the cultural issues the RN must consider with patients with pedatric obestiy?

  1. Food choices are very much linked to culture
  2. Exercise is also affected by culture. Americans like to park close, drive cars, drive through, order out, take elevators, and watch TV
  3. Americans no longer sit down to eat at a table regularly. Often people in their cars, at their desks or on the run. The socially satfisying eating experience is no longer the norm for a number of people
  4. Reduce prevalence of home cooked meal prepartion


What issues would low socioeconomic status play in pedatric obesity?

  1. Fresh fruits and veggies are expensive
  2. Access to grocery stores in urban areas is difficult. corner stores have limited availability of healthy food, tending to stock foods high in processed sugars and fats
  3. Medications to control BG, BP, and blood lipids are expensive. With decrease in health care covereage and symptomless disease, patient may be non compliant due to expense of meds
  4. Gym membership fees and access is not available to all


What effect does it have on the obese child when all of the family, friends, and neighbors are fat too?

PEople eat for a variety of emotional needs. Food is perceived as a reward. Stress levels and need to succeed may deter lifestyle changes.

In a society that worships thinness, dealing with overweight and obesity issues can be delicate. Body image in an individual issue. Some individuals have worked hard to "love their body," depsite being overweight


How may family issues be barriers to treating pedatric obesity?

  • Changing eating patterns may be very stressful to the individual, the "cook" and even to the rest of the family. Preparation of two meals may be impractical.
  • Often several individuals (or everyone) in a given family have similar risky lifestyle habits. Including the family in the lifestyle changes may improve success


Underweight BMI



Healthy Weight BMI



Overweight BMI



Obese BMI

30 and above

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