Chronic kidney disease II Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Renal > Chronic kidney disease II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chronic kidney disease II Deck (22):
1

definition: azotemia

- presence of NITROGENOUS waste products in the blood
- elevated BUN and creatinine

2

definition: uremia

- azotemia plus constellation of signs and symptoms that may accrue as a result of renal failure

3

indications for dialysis are due to uremia or azotemia?

uremia - need constellation of symptoms

4

what is the main complication of uremia?

CV

5

what is the number one cause of death in CKD patients?

CVD

6

definition: CKD-MBD

systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD, manifested by either one or a combination of:

- abnormalities in calcium, phosphorous, PTH, vitamin D
- abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralization, volume linear growth, strength
- extra skeletal calcification

7

what labs are usually seen in CKD patients?

- high phosphorous
- normal or low calcium
- secondary hyperPTH

8

calciphylaxis

type of extraosseus calcification characterized by systemic medial calcification of the arterioles that leads to ischemia and subQ necrosis

9

calciphylaxis: histology

- small vessel mural calcification with or without endovascular fibrosis
- extravascular calcification
- thrombotic vaso-occlusion

10

slowing the rate of progression of CKD is about modifying what process?

maladaptive hyperfiltration

11

what is the target BP in diabetics and non-diabetics with CKD and urine albumin UNDER 30 mg/24 hours?

less than or equal to 140 / 90

12

what is the target BP in diabetics and non-diabetics with CKD and urine albumin OVER 30 mg/24 hours?

less than or equal to 130 / 90

13

what is the recommended target HbA1c for glycemic control in prevention of CKD progression?

under 7%

14

patients with GFR under 15 mL/min are prone to ______________

increased ECF

15

what is the treatment for CKD volume overload?

- salt and water restriction
- diuretic therapy (loop)

16

when is anemia diagnosed in patients with CKD?

- Hb under 13.0 g/dL males, 12.0 g/dL females

17

what is the treatment for anemia in CKD patients?

EPO and nutritional supplements

18

what is the goal Hb in CKD anemia?

10 - 11 g/dL

19

what is the treatment for CKD hyperkalemia?

- low K diet
- diuretics and alkali

20

when does hyperphosphatemia occur (early / late)? what does it lead to?

- occurs early
- leads to secondary hyperPTH

21

what are the treatment options for CKD V?

- maintenance hemodialysis
- peritoneal dialysis
- kidney transplant
- palliative care

22

which has better survival rates - dialysis or transplant?

transplant