Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Deck (58):
1

Describe flow of blood from heart to body.

-Aorta --> arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries (diffusion) --> venules --> veins ---> heart

2

What blood does the right side of the heart carry?

-Deoxygenated blood to pulmonary circulation

3

Left side of the heart...

...carries oxygenated blood to systemic circulation.

4

Are atria or ventricles thin walled?

Atria

5

Which ventricle is more muscular?

Left ventricle --> generates enough force to pump blood against higher resistance

6

Detail the path of blood returning to heart.

-Into right atrium --> tricuspid valve --> right ventricle --> pulmonary semilunar valve --> pulmonary arteries --> lungs --> pulmonary veins --> left atrium --> mitral valve --> left ventricle --> aortic semilunar valve --> systemic

7

Which valves have two cusps? Three?

-2: mitral valve
-3: tricuspid and semilunar valves

8

Systole

-Ventricles contract

9

Diastole

-Cardiac muscle relaxation
-Blood drains into all 4 chambers`

10

Heartbeat is made up by

-Systole and Diastole

11

Cardiac output is calculated by

heart rate (bpm) x stroke volume (blood volume pumped out of left ventricle/contraction)

12

Cardiac contractions regulated by

-Sinoatrial node (SA) - pacemaker

13

Where is the SA located?

-Wall of right atrium

14

What is the difference between the superior and inferior vena cava?

-Superior brings deoxygenated blood from upper half of body to right atrium
-Inferior from the bottom half

15

How does the SA regulate heart rate?

-Both atria contract --> AV node --> ventricles fill with blood
-Impulse carried by bundle of His (AV bundle) --> Purkinje fibers in both ventricles --> contraction

16

How does epinephrine regulate heart rate?

-Increase HR
-Secreted by adrenal medulla

17

List blood vessel type by increasing thickness.

Capillaries

18

What drives blood flow in veins?

-Contraction of skeletal muscles during movement

19

Why do veins have valves?

-Prevent backflow as venous circulation often opposed gravity

20

Capillaries

-Single layer of epithelial cells
-Smallest diameter

21

Lymphatic system

-Transport excess interstitial fluid (lymph) to cardiovascular system
-Keep fluid levels in body constant

22

Lacteals

-Collect fats (chylomicrons) from villi in small intestine --> bloodstream
-Smallest lymph vessels

23

Lymph nodes

Swellings along lymph vessels with phagocytic cells (lymphocytes) that filter lymph

24

What are the cellular components of blood?

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets

25

What is plasma made up of?

-Liquid portion of blood
-Nutrients, salts, gases, wastes, hormones, blood proteins (immunoglobulins, albumin, fibrinogen)

26

Why do RBC have a biconcave disk shape?

-Gives more flexibility and greater SA

27

Where are RBC formed?

-Bone marrow, stimulated by erythropoietin
-In bone marrow, lose nuclei, mitochondria, membranous organelles --> blood

28

What type of antigen does type A blood have? Antibodies?

-Type A antigen
-Type B anitbody

29

What does erythroblastosis fetalis result from?

-Rh- mother pregnant with Rh+ baby first then pregnant again with Rh+ baby (now has anti-Rh antibodies)

30

Where are amino acids and simple sugars absorbed into the bloodstream?

Intestinal capillaries

31

Describe the clotting cascade.

-Exposed collagen cause platelets to form plug.
-Platelets and tissue release thromboplastin.
-Thromboplastin converts prothrombin to thrombin.
-Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
-Fibrin traps blood cells --> clot

32

What are methods of anticoagulants?

-Inhibit recycling of vitamin K (needed as cofactor of thromboplastin)

33

What is the path air follows in respiratory tract?

-Nose-->Pharynx(throat)-->larynx-->trachea-->bronchi-->bronchioles-->alveoli

34

Inhalation

-Diaphragm contracts/flattens
-External intercostal muscles contract
-Rib cage/chest wall pushed up and out
-Fill with air

35

Exhalation

-Passive process
-Lungs/chest recoil to original position
-Pressure increase, air forced out of alveoli

36

Surfactant

-Protein complex secreted by cells in lungs
-Decreases surface tension in alveoli
-Prevents lung collapse

37

What part of the brain controls ventilation?

-Medulla oblongata

38

Would increasing the partial pressure of CO2 in blood increase or decrease ventilation?

Increase to maintain proper concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ions

39

What surrounds alveoli?

Pulmonary capillaries (minute blood vessels)

40

Total lung capacity

-Max volume of air lungs can hold

41

Tidal volume

-Volume air moved during normal resting breath which differs from max by the inspiratory/expiratory reserve volume

42

Vital capacity

-Volume of air moved in max inhalation/exhalation

43

What is the primary cause of movement of lymph?

-Pressure of skeletal muscles

44

Is the pressure of lymph in vessels high or low?

-Low so the difference can draw liquid from tissues into lymphatic system

45

How is liquid returned to blood?

-Lymph vessels that drain into large veins of cardiovascular system

46

Where do the lymphatic and circulatory systems meet?

-Thoracic duct

47

Blockage of the thoracic duct would inhibit absorption of...

...triglycerides

48

Is the partial pressure of oxygen higher or lower in alveoli than pulmonary capillaries (blood)?

-Higher--> flows down pressure gradient and binds to hemoglobin

49

Is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide higher or lower in alveoli than pulmonary capillaries (blood)?

-Lower --> flows into alveoli for expiration

50

Trapped particulate matter in respiratory system is moved towards what part of tract for expulsion?

-Pharynx

51

What are the two membranes of the lungs?

-Visceral and parietal pleura with interpleural space in between

52

What is the purpose of the pressure differential between interpleural space and lungs?

-Keeps lungs inflated

53

What kind of breathing is inhalation?

-Active
-Negative pressure breathing (air enters lungs due to vacuum created)

54

What compresses the lungs during exhalation?

-Internal intercostal muscles opposed to contraction of external intercostal muscles in inhalation

55

Can exhalation be a passive process?

-Yes, during strenuous activitis

56

Agglutinins

-Antibodies

57

Agglutinogens

-Antigens

58

Type O blood has

-No antigens
-Anti-A and anti-B antibodies