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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (40):
1

What is the difference between excretion and elimination?

-Excretion removes metabolic waste while elimination removes indigestible material (dietary fiber)

2

What are the principle organs involved in excretion?

-Lungs, liver, skin, kidneys

3

What are the units comprising the kidney called?

-Nephrons

4

What are the three regions of the kidney?

-Outer cortex, inner medulla, renal pelvis

5

What structures are in the outer cortex regions?

-Bowman's capsule/glomerulus and convoluted tubules

6

What structures are in the medulla?

-Loop of Henle and collecting duct

7

What structures are in the pelvis?

-Collecting tubules

8

Trace the flow of the kidney.

-Capsule --> Proximal Convoluted Tubule --> Loop of Henle --> Distal Convoluted Tubule --> Collecting Duct --> Ureter --> Urinary Bladder --> Urethra

9

What surrounds most of the nephron?

Peritubular capillary - aids in reabsorption of aa, glucose, salts, water

10

What are the three steps of urine formation?

-Filtration, Secretion, Reabsoption

11

What drives filtration?

-Passive, driven by hydrostatic pressure of blood

12

What is relation of filtrate and blood plasma?

-Isotonic

13

What is secreted into filtrate in secretion step?

-Waste substance (acids, ions, metabolites) from interstitial fluid by passive/active transport

14

What is reabsorbed and returned to blood?

-Glucose, salts, amino acids (active)
-Water (passive)

15

Where does reabsorption occur mainly?

-Proximal convoluted tubule (active)

16

After reabsorption, what is formed?

-Concentrated urine hypertonic to blood

17

What is the primary function of the nephron?

-Clean blood plasma of unwanted substances through selective permeability and osmolarity gradient of nephron

18

Where is the primary site of nutrient reabsorption?

-Proximal convoluted tubule

19

Where is the major site of secretion of substances into the filtrate?

-Distal convoluted tubule

20

What is the descending loop of Henle permeable to?

-Permeable to water but not to ions or urea

21

What is the thin ascending limb of the loop of Henle permeable to?

-Permeable to ions (passive), impermeable to water

22

What is the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle's function?

-Active reabsorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride

23

What creates the osmolarity gradient between the tubules and interstitial fluid?

-Na+ and Cl-

24

Which direction does tissue osmolarity increase from?

-Cortex to inner medulla

25

What drives the gradient?

-Counter-current-multiplier system (use energy to create concentration gradient)

26

The interstitial space in the medulla of the kidney is _________ in relation to filtrate in renal tubule.

-Hyperosmolar

27

Osmosis allows water to flow from ____ to the ____ when filtrate travel down collecting ducts to pelvis/ureter.

From ducts to interstitial fluid

28

Where does the water reabsorbed from collecting ducts go?

-Travels from capillaries in medulla to systemic circulation

29

What hormone regulates the permeability of the collecting ducts to water?

-ADH (vasopressin) secreted by hypothalamus
-Increase permeability to water --> reabsorption --> more concentrated urine

30

What is purpose of aldosterone?

-Steroid hormone
-Increase transport of Na+ (excretion) along distal convoluted tubule/collecting duct
-Increases water reabsorption

31

How does ADH increase water reabsorption?

-Opens more aquaporins

32

ADH and aldosterone both...

...decrease urine output and increase blood pressure.

33

Diuretics target

-inhibit sodium reabsorption in ascending loop (loop diuretics)
-inhibit sodium-chloride transporter in distal convoluted tubule

34

What is body fluid pH?

7.4

35

What are the types of acid-base disorders?

-Respiratory (pCO2)
-Metabolic (HCO3-)

36

Which type of A-B disorder takes longer to compensate for?

-Respiratory since they are compensated for by the kidney changing levels of HCO3-

37

What is the defect and compensation method of metabolic acidosis?

-Cause: low HCO3-
-Compensate: low pCO2

38

What is the defect and compensation method of respiratory acidosis?

-Cause: high pCO2
-Compensate: high HCO3-

39

Metabolic alkalosis?

-Cause: high HCO3-
-Compensate: high pCO2

40

Respiratory alkalosis?

-Cause: low pCO2
-Compensate: low HCO3-