Flashcards in Metabolism Deck (24):
What are the favored fuels of living cells?
Carbohydrates and fats
-Air into lungs
-Gas exchange between alveoli and blood
-Gas exchange between blood and cells
-Intracellular process of respiration
are rich in energy.
Net reaction of Glycolysis...
Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ --->
2Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2H2O
How does glycolysis produce ATP?
Substrate level phosphorylation
How many ATPs are formed from fermentation?
What are the stages of cellular respiration?
-Citric Acid Cycle
How many ATP are produced in cellular respiration for humans? Bacteria?
Pyruvate decarboxylation forms
Citric acid cycle forms...
Electron Transport Chain
-High energy e- transferred from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen
How many ATP's are produced from each NADH and FADH2?
Which direction are protons actively pumped to?
From the matrix into the intermembrane space
Why do bacteria produce more ATP?
The 2NADH do not have to cross the mitochondrial membrane so they don't lost an ATP
What is the preferential order of energy sources?
-Glucose --> Other Carbs --> Fats --> Proteins
Which energy source produces the most ATP?
Once fatty acid is activated, where does it go?
Mitochondrion --> beta oxidation cycles to convert to acetyl-coA
-Each oxidation cycle produces one NADH and one FADH2
-Transamination reactions remove an amino group leaving alpha keto acid
-C atoms converted to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, or TCA int
-Km is increased
-Decrease Vmax, Km
-Can be metal cations
-Small organic molecules
-Mostly unable to be synthesized by body