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Flashcards in Metabolism Deck (24):
1

What are the favored fuels of living cells?

Carbohydrates and fats

2

External respiration

-Air into lungs
-Gas exchange between alveoli and blood

3

Internal respiration

-Gas exchange between blood and cells
-Intracellular process of respiration

4

C-H bonds...

are rich in energy.

5

Net reaction of Glycolysis...

Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ --->
2Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2H2O

6

How does glycolysis produce ATP?

Substrate level phosphorylation

7

How many ATPs are formed from fermentation?

2ATP

8

What are the stages of cellular respiration?

-Pyruvate decarboxylation
-Citric Acid Cycle
-ETC

9

How many ATP are produced in cellular respiration for humans? Bacteria?

36ATP
38ATP

10

Pyruvate decarboxylation forms

-Acetyl-coA
-1NADH

11

Citric acid cycle forms...

-3NADH
-2CO2
-1ATP
-1FADH2

12

Electron Transport Chain

-High energy e- transferred from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen
-Produces 32ATP

13

How many ATP's are produced from each NADH and FADH2?

-3,2

14

Which direction are protons actively pumped to?

From the matrix into the intermembrane space

15

Why do bacteria produce more ATP?

The 2NADH do not have to cross the mitochondrial membrane so they don't lost an ATP

16

What is the preferential order of energy sources?

-Glucose --> Other Carbs --> Fats --> Proteins

17

Which energy source produces the most ATP?

Fats

18

Once fatty acid is activated, where does it go?

Mitochondrion --> beta oxidation cycles to convert to acetyl-coA
-Each oxidation cycle produces one NADH and one FADH2

19

Proteins

-Transamination reactions remove an amino group leaving alpha keto acid
-C atoms converted to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, or TCA int

20

Competitive inhibition

-Vmax unaffected
-Km is increased

21

Noncompetitive inhibition

-Irreversible
-Decrease Vmax, Km

22

Cofactors

-Nonprotein molecules
-Can be metal cations

23

Coenzymes

-Nonprotein
-Small organic molecules
-Mostly unable to be synthesized by body
-Vitamins

24

Prosthetic groups

-Covalently attached to enzyme