Flashcards in Ecology Deck (33):
What is the order of the levels of organization?
Organism --> Population --> Community --> Ecosystem --> Biosphere
What are physical factors of environment?
-Water, temperature (latitude/altitude), sunlight, oxygen
What factors affect substratum?
-Soil pH, texture (loams contain each soil type), minerals (nitrates, phosphates), humus
Who has a longer digestive tract?
-Herbivores required greater surface area/time than Carnivores
-Functional role distinct to each species
What happens if two species occupy similar niches?
-Common resource causes extinction, change in distribution, or further divergence in niches.
-Intimate, often permanent association
-Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism
Protists/Fungi decompose dead organisms externally and absorb nutrients
-Mold, mushrooms, bacteria of decay, slime molds
-Cold-blooded, releases most heat energy to environment
-Warm-blooded, make use of heat produced
-Physical adaptations: hair, fat, feathers
Are food webs with more numbers of pathways more or less stable?
Compare energy, mass, and number in food pyramid.
-Each energy transfer looses energy as well as uses some for metabolism (heat loss)
-All decrease when ascending pyramid
Who drives most material cycles?
-Scavengers and decomposers
Elemental Nitrogen --> Nitrates
Ammonia --> Nitrates/Nitrites
How are nitrites used and converted to ammonia?
-Plants absorb them (nucleic acids/proteins) --> animals eat plants (animal proteins) --> bacteria of decay (ammonia)
What are the fates of ammonia produced from waste/dead tissue?
-Denitrified by bacteria to elemental nitrogen
What gives off CO2 to atmosphere?
-Respiration by plants/animals
What uses up CO2?
What returns organic carbon locked in organism?
-Bacteria of decay
When is a climax community established?
-Community sere occurs in which population alters environment in way that original conditions giving rise to current community are recreated.
What is a sere?
-Community stage in ecological succession
-Defined by dominant species
Which is the most stable biome?
-Less than 10 inches rain
-10-30 inches rain
-No shelter for herbivorous mammals --> long legs/hooves
-High temperature in tropical; moderate in temperate
-Dense vegetation, not shed leaves
-Floor inhabited by saprophytes
Temperate deciduous forest
-Cold winters (shed leaves), warm summers
-NE and Central Eastern US, Central Europe
Temperate Coniferous Forest
-Cold, dry, not shed leaves
-Water conservation with needle shaped leaves
-Northern US/Southern CA
-Less rain than temperate forests
-Long, cold winter
-Not shed leaves
-Floors inhabited by moss/lichens
-Treeless, frozen plain
-Very short summer/growing period
-Polar ice caps, no vegetation, few animals
-Intertidal --> Neritic --> Pelagic