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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (33):
1

What is the order of the levels of organization?

Organism --> Population --> Community --> Ecosystem --> Biosphere

2

What are physical factors of environment?

-Water, temperature (latitude/altitude), sunlight, oxygen

3

What factors affect substratum?

-Soil pH, texture (loams contain each soil type), minerals (nitrates, phosphates), humus

4

Who has a longer digestive tract?

-Herbivores required greater surface area/time than Carnivores

5

Niche

-Functional role distinct to each species

6

What happens if two species occupy similar niches?

-Common resource causes extinction, change in distribution, or further divergence in niches.

7

Symbiosis

-Intimate, often permanent association
-Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism

8

Sapyphytism

Protists/Fungi decompose dead organisms externally and absorb nutrients
-Mold, mushrooms, bacteria of decay, slime molds

9

Poikilothermic

-Cold-blooded, releases most heat energy to environment

10

Homeothermic

-Warm-blooded, make use of heat produced
-Physical adaptations: hair, fat, feathers

11

Are food webs with more numbers of pathways more or less stable?

-More stable

12

Compare energy, mass, and number in food pyramid.

-Each energy transfer looses energy as well as uses some for metabolism (heat loss)
-All decrease when ascending pyramid

13

Who drives most material cycles?

-Scavengers and decomposers

14

Elemental Nitrogen --> Nitrates

-Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
-Lightening

15

Ammonia --> Nitrates/Nitrites

-Nitrifying bacteria
-Chemosynthesis

16

How are nitrites used and converted to ammonia?

-Plants absorb them (nucleic acids/proteins) --> animals eat plants (animal proteins) --> bacteria of decay (ammonia)

17

What are the fates of ammonia produced from waste/dead tissue?

-Nitrified again
-Denitrified by bacteria to elemental nitrogen

18

What gives off CO2 to atmosphere?

-Respiration by plants/animals

19

What uses up CO2?

-Photosynthesis

20

What returns organic carbon locked in organism?

-Bacteria of decay

21

When is a climax community established?

-Community sere occurs in which population alters environment in way that original conditions giving rise to current community are recreated.

22

What is a sere?

-Community stage in ecological succession
-Defined by dominant species

23

Which is the most stable biome?

-Aquatic biomes

24

Desert

-Less than 10 inches rain
-Small plants/animals

25

Grassland

-10-30 inches rain
-No shelter for herbivorous mammals --> long legs/hooves

26

Rainforest

-Torrential rains
-High temperature in tropical; moderate in temperate
-Dense vegetation, not shed leaves
-Epiphytes
-Floor inhabited by saprophytes

27

Temperate deciduous forest

-Cold winters (shed leaves), warm summers
-Moderate rain
-NE and Central Eastern US, Central Europe

28

Temperate Coniferous Forest

-Cold, dry, not shed leaves
-Water conservation with needle shaped leaves
-Redwoods
-Northern US/Southern CA

29

Taiga

-Less rain than temperate forests
-Long, cold winter
-Not shed leaves
-Floors inhabited by moss/lichens
-CA/Russia

30

Tundra

-Treeless, frozen plain
-Permafrost
-Very short summer/growing period

31

Polar

-Polar ice caps, no vegetation, few animals

32

Marine

-Intertidal --> Neritic --> Pelagic

33

Freshwater

-Hypotonic (vacuoles/cell walls), swift currents ( root-like holdfasts)
-Affected by variations in climate/water