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Flashcards in Civics Chapter 8 Deck (13)
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Plaintiff

An individual or a group of people who bring a complaint against another party in a civil case

1

Dependent

The party who answers a complaint and defends against it in a court case

2

Prosecution

A government body that brings a charge against a defendant who is accused of breaking one of its laws

3

Precedent

A guideline to how similar cases should be decided in the future

4

Original jurisdiction

A court's authority to hear a case first

5

Appeal

To ask a higher court to review a decision and determine whether justice was done

6

Appellate jurisdiction

A court's authority to hear an appeal of a decision by another court

7

Courts of appeal

Courts that handle appeals from lower federal district courts

8

Circuit courts

Another name for courts of appeals

9

Judicial review

The Supreme Court's power to overturn any law that it decides is in conflict with the Constitution

10

Opinion

A written statement from the court explaining the reasons for a decision

11

Judicial activism

An effort by judges to take an active role in policymaking by overturning laws relatively often

12

Judicial restraint

An effort by judges to avoid overturning laws and to leave policymaking up to the other two branches of government