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Flashcards in Science Chapter 3 Vocab Deck (39):
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Atom

Smallest particle that can still be considered and element

1

Electrons

A tiny, negatively charged particle that moves around the outside of the nucleus of an atom.

2

Nucleus

The central core of an atom which contains protons and neutrons

3

Protons

Small, positively charged particles that are found in the nucleus of an atom.

4

Energy level

A region of an atom in which electrons of the same energy are likely to be found.

5

Neutron

A small particle in the nucleus of the atom, with no electrical charge.

6

Atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

7

Isotopes

An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element.

8

Mass number

The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

9

Atomic mass

The average mass of all the isotopes of an element.

10

Periodic Table

An arrangement of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties.

11

Chemical Symbol

A one- or two-letter representation of an element.

12

Periods

1. A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

13

Metals

A class of elements characterized by physical properties that include shininess, malleability, ductility, and conductivity.

14

Group

Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table; also called family.

15

Luster

The way a mineral reflects light from its surface.

16

Malleable

A term used to describe material that can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets.

17

Ductile

A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire.

18

Thermal Conductivity

The ability of an object to transfer heat.

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Electrical Conductivity

The ability of an object to carry electric current.

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Reactivity

The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds.

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Corrosion

The gradual wearing away of a metal element due to a chemical reaction.

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Alkali Metals

An element in Group 1 of the periodic table.

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Alkaline Earth Metals

An element in Group 2 of the periodic table.

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Transition Metals

One of the elements in Groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table.

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Nonmetal

An element that lacks most of the properties of a metal.

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Diatomic Molecule

A molecule consisting of two atoms.

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Halogens

An element found in Group 17 of the periodic table.

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Noble gases

An element in Group 18 of the periodic table.

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Metalloid

An element that has some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals.

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Semiconductors

A substance that can conduct electric current under some conditions.

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Radioactive decay

The process in which the nuclei of radioactive elements break down, releasing fast-moving particles and energy.

32

Nuclear reaction

A reaction involving the particles in the nucleus of an atom that can change one element into another element.

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Radioactivity

The spontaneous emission of radiation by an unstable atomic nucleus.

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Alpha particle

A particle given off during radioactive decay that consists of two protons and two neutrons.

35

Beta particle

A fast-moving electron that is given off as nuclear radiation.

36

Gamma rays

Electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies.

37

Half-life

The time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive element to decay.

38

Tracer

A radioactive isotope that can be followed through the steps of a chemical reaction or industrial process.