Flashcards in Class #9 - Mental illness Deck (52):
Mental illness affects?
Moon causing craziness
Amanda Feilding 70s?
Own trepanation, claims higher consciousness
Peter Halvorson advocate for?
Hole in head
Freud definition of mental illness?
Struggle between consciousness and uncon.
1780 Luigi Galvani? Also found out?
Frog Leg twitches with static electricity. His body was releasing electricity
1st batteries with 2 dissimilar metals where paper with water and salt was placed between.
Otta Loewi 1920s? Experiment? Discovered?
Stimulated heart of frog by stimulating vagus nerve with electricity slows the heart rate. Allowed a solution connected to a second heart and that made the 2nd heartbeat.
First NT isolated? Does what to heart?
Acetylcholine, slow HR.
Rx Reserpine causes? comes from?
NT (monoamines) to leak out of vesicle slowly = >HR.
NE/Dopamine flood out of synapse.
Impairs reuptake of NE and Serotonin (not selective to serotonin)
Impairs breakdown of MAO.
Block receptors for dopamine
"Loss contact with reality" "hallucinations" "Delusions of persecutions"
Henri Laborit (France) 1952 experiment?
Death surgery table why?
Hypo: b/c of histamines?
Promethazine (Phenergan): Anti-his., did not reduce death, but calmed pts.
He tried it on schizo and this trigged research.
Henri Laborit also first anti-histamine successful on schizo? Why? Conclusions? AE?
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine). Block dopamine. Conclusion schizo caused by excess dopamine. Parkinsons like Sx.
Nathan Kline (USA) tried?
Reserpine on schizo. and it worked.
Perphenazine difference with chlorpromazine?
Haldol action? advantage with perphenazine? Works on everyone?
Block dopamine. Less AE. Calming effect.
% of schizo that can function normally nowadays?
Clinical depression 4 characteristics?
Hopelessness, pessimism, uselessness, no reason to feel that way.
The first antidepressant resulted from? Name? Mec of action? class?
Research for improved chlorpromazine. Imipramine. Block reuptake of serotonin/NE Tricyclic.
Called tricyclic b/c?
3 benzene ring.
Tricyclic AE? why?
Anticholinergic: Dry mouth, blurred vision
Antiadrenergic: Irregular heart beat.
B/C also block cholinergic and NE receptors.
Prozac first? AE?
SSRI's. N, anxiety, sleep disturbance, sex dysfunction.
Sertraline, Travadone, Citalopram
Prozac bad press? Also would increase? Proven?
1989 Louisville shooting, the murderer on Prozac? Suicide risk? Never proven.
Prozac also used to treat?
% of people with Tourette also have OCD?
% of pop with OCD?
Tourette's syndrome explained by?
George Gilles de la Tourette. Involuntary tics and vocalizations
Unwanted, unreasonable, intrusive thoughts. Often about contamination, symmetry, "perfection"
Acts upon obsessions.
Trichomania def? fun fact?
Playing with hair all the time. birds can have that.
Chemical imbalance. Seizures, strokes, TBI's can trigger OCD.
After stroke, all thoughts about food.
When OCD treated in brain scan?
reduction in caudate nucleus activity, just like treated addicts.
Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS)?
OCD triggered by Strep. in child.
Meds for OCD?
SSRI's especially Anafranil. 30% improved Sx.
Behavioral therapy how it works?
Force people to do things they fear for, 1-20 sessions can improve overall Sx.
Another therapy that works?
History of MAOI's? Discoverer?
Tuberculosis -> Iproniazid anti-tuberculosis -> Also made them happy -> Nathan Kline tried on depressed pts
Problem with MAOIs?
Old cheese contains Tyramine = HTA if not broken down with MOA.
History of Lithium as bipolar treatment.
John Cade noticed maniac/depressed pattern in Jap WWII prison camp -> injected in guinea pig urine of pt in maniac phase -> died more quickly than when in depressed phase. Hypo: b/c of uric acid in urine?
Made a salt with lithium for his base and it calmed down guinea pig and pts.
Lithium mec of action? AE?
Block synthesis of Inositol which plays a role in conducting electricity in brain.
AE: N, trembling hands
1st antianxiety Rx? Problem?
Barbiturates. Too sedative and addictive.
Researcher for first Benzo? and how?
Frank Berger test Rx for ATB activity -> Tried Mephenosin -> musc relaxant and anti-anx, but to many AE. Stimulated research.
Meprobamate -> Librium -> Valium