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Flashcards in class external Deck (27)
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1

working class

manual occupations (skilled workers)

2

middle class

non-manual occupations
traditionally include professionals
e.g doctors, teachers

3

external factors

outside influences
cultural, material deprivation
cultural capital

4

internal factors

labelling, subcultures, marketisation

5

cultural deprivation

lacking in values and attitudes, language, self discipline, intellect and reasoning
this starts with primary socialisation

6

Bereiter and Engelmann (1966)

claim the language used in lower class homes is deficient (restricted speech codes)

7

Douglas (1964) and Feinstein (2008)

parental attitudes and education

8

parenting style
educated/ uneducated parents
discipline

educated parents - emphasise consistent discipline and high expectations by encouraging active learning

less educated parents - marked by harsh or inconsistent disciplines that emphasises 'doing what you're told' preventing independence and self control

9

use of income

educated parents - often spend income in ways to benefit their children e.g educational toys, games encouraging reasoning skills

less educated/ working class - choose to spend money in ways that don't improve their child's intellectual development

10

class, income and parental education

children with better educated parents tend to do better in school - this could explain differences in classes
an educated parent understands the value to education and whats needed for their child's success

11

parents educational behaviours

educated parents - know whats needed for their Childs success, more likely to engage in activities that will benefit them e.g reading to them , visiting museums and libraries

working class parents are generally less educated and therefore see less value in this

12

elaborated code

wider vocabulary, complex sentences, communicated abstract ideas, context free
generally middle and upper class

13

restricted code

limited vocabulary, simple sentences, descriptive ( not analytical), context bound
generally working class

14

subculture

norms and values that do not fit the mainstream culture

15

Barry Sugarman (1970)

argues the working class subculture has 4 key attitudes that act as a barrier to educational achievement
-collectivism
-immediate gratification
-fatalism
-present time orientation

16

collectivism

the value of being part of a group, more than succeeding as an individual
middle class values often emphasise personal success

17

immediate gratification

seeking pleasures now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future

18

fatalism

the idea that you cannot change your status or position in society as 'whatever will be, will be'

19

present time orientation

seeing the present as more important than the future and therefore not having long term goals

20

material deprivation ( 4 examples)

housing
diet and health
cost of schooling
fear of debt and other financial issues

21

cost of schooling - David Bull (1980)

'cost of free schooling' and children from poor families often miss out on resources and trips.

22

diet and health

W/C may not invest their money in healthier foods its cheeper to by frozen/ microwaved (less healthy) foods.
packet of biscuits 50p packet of apples over £1

poor diet - lower immune system - more absences

high sugar diet - child hyper/ ratty - teacher disciplining child quicker - gets in more trouble at school

foods lacking in nutrition lack energy - child sluggish and tired don't participate in work

23

housing

overcrowding - no space to complete homework/ study very noisy

dampness and poor conditions - children become ill
Washbrook suggests that this battle with illness leads to more time off school and therefore less learning

temporary accommodation - if the local council want to rehouse the family, they may be moved numerous times. of the family are renting privately via housing benefits then landlords may request them to move
can result in multiple school changes and less learning
focus on making new friends
different schools have different curriculems

24

fear of debt and other financial issues

higher education can create lots of debt
university fees, living accommodation and resources may put W/C students off further education

Jackson (2005)

National Union of students (2010)

Reay (2005)

dropout rates are higher for the WC - 16.6% dropout at London Met - larger WC intake, compared to 1.5% at Oxford - half students from private schools

25

Jackson (2005)

argues WC students are debt adverse - the costs seem to outweigh the benefits
an increase in uni fees may deter even more WC students

26

National Union of Students (2010)

found from a sample of 3,863 students that 81% of highest social class receive financial support from home compared to 43%from the lowest class

27

Reay (2005)

found that WC student where more likely to go to local universities to live at home and work part time whilst at uni