class external Flashcards Preview

sociology education + research methods > class external > Flashcards

Flashcards in class external Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...

working class

manual occupations (skilled workers)


middle class

non-manual occupations
traditionally include professionals
e.g doctors, teachers


external factors

outside influences
cultural, material deprivation
cultural capital


internal factors

labelling, subcultures, marketisation


cultural deprivation

lacking in values and attitudes, language, self discipline, intellect and reasoning
this starts with primary socialisation


Bereiter and Engelmann (1966)

claim the language used in lower class homes is deficient (restricted speech codes)


Douglas (1964) and Feinstein (2008)

parental attitudes and education


parenting style
educated/ uneducated parents

educated parents - emphasise consistent discipline and high expectations by encouraging active learning

less educated parents - marked by harsh or inconsistent disciplines that emphasises 'doing what you're told' preventing independence and self control


use of income

educated parents - often spend income in ways to benefit their children e.g educational toys, games encouraging reasoning skills

less educated/ working class - choose to spend money in ways that don't improve their child's intellectual development


class, income and parental education

children with better educated parents tend to do better in school - this could explain differences in classes
an educated parent understands the value to education and whats needed for their child's success


parents educational behaviours

educated parents - know whats needed for their Childs success, more likely to engage in activities that will benefit them e.g reading to them , visiting museums and libraries

working class parents are generally less educated and therefore see less value in this


elaborated code

wider vocabulary, complex sentences, communicated abstract ideas, context free
generally middle and upper class


restricted code

limited vocabulary, simple sentences, descriptive ( not analytical), context bound
generally working class



norms and values that do not fit the mainstream culture


Barry Sugarman (1970)

argues the working class subculture has 4 key attitudes that act as a barrier to educational achievement
-immediate gratification
-present time orientation



the value of being part of a group, more than succeeding as an individual
middle class values often emphasise personal success


immediate gratification

seeking pleasures now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future



the idea that you cannot change your status or position in society as 'whatever will be, will be'


present time orientation

seeing the present as more important than the future and therefore not having long term goals


material deprivation ( 4 examples)

diet and health
cost of schooling
fear of debt and other financial issues


cost of schooling - David Bull (1980)

'cost of free schooling' and children from poor families often miss out on resources and trips.


diet and health

W/C may not invest their money in healthier foods its cheeper to by frozen/ microwaved (less healthy) foods.
packet of biscuits 50p packet of apples over £1

poor diet - lower immune system - more absences

high sugar diet - child hyper/ ratty - teacher disciplining child quicker - gets in more trouble at school

foods lacking in nutrition lack energy - child sluggish and tired don't participate in work



overcrowding - no space to complete homework/ study very noisy

dampness and poor conditions - children become ill
Washbrook suggests that this battle with illness leads to more time off school and therefore less learning

temporary accommodation - if the local council want to rehouse the family, they may be moved numerous times. of the family are renting privately via housing benefits then landlords may request them to move
can result in multiple school changes and less learning
focus on making new friends
different schools have different curriculems


fear of debt and other financial issues

higher education can create lots of debt
university fees, living accommodation and resources may put W/C students off further education

Jackson (2005)

National Union of students (2010)

Reay (2005)

dropout rates are higher for the WC - 16.6% dropout at London Met - larger WC intake, compared to 1.5% at Oxford - half students from private schools


Jackson (2005)

argues WC students are debt adverse - the costs seem to outweigh the benefits
an increase in uni fees may deter even more WC students


National Union of Students (2010)

found from a sample of 3,863 students that 81% of highest social class receive financial support from home compared to 43%from the lowest class


Reay (2005)

found that WC student where more likely to go to local universities to live at home and work part time whilst at uni