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Flashcards in class internal Deck (30)
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components of a ideal pupil

smart (clothing)
quiet - not disruptive



tells us teachers label the students on behaviour and not ability - the obedient are the most favoured


Dunne and Gazely

suggest that teachers felt unconcerned and did little about WC underachievement as they believed parents didn't care, whereas teachers supported underachieving middle class kids as they believed their parents would support the student


Rist case study

teachers in a school seated children based on their knowledge of their home backgrounds and appearance.

the groups were labelled as tigers, cardinals and clowns

the middle class she sat at the front and supported while the others were more likely WC and she gave lower level tasks to them and gave them less chance to prove themselves


self fulfilling prophecy

A label is attached - WC unintelligent?

Teacher treats pupil accordingly - intelligent more support given and their pushed and given extra work low ability are helped left to underachieve

pupil internalises the teachers expectations


Rosenthal + Jacobson

study called "Pygmalion in the classroom"
used a field experiment to test the teachers hypothesis
gave all students a 'special test' to identify the ones who will achieve
the test was actually a normal IQ test
the randomly picked 20% of the students and identified them as 'spurters'
a year later they returned and you could see the 'spurters' had achieved a lot more than the rest of the class
they assumed they had been given extra work and resources


what Rosenthal and Jacobsons case study showed is

teacher labelling impacts the students achievement
if a teacher supports you and believes you can achieve you try harder and believe you can
the self fulfilling prophecy

they should repeat these experiments on more schools
it quite unethical the schools are lied to and it causes harm by leading to 80% of students underachievement

its deterministic - ignores free will and assumes an outcome


Gillborn and Youdell (2001)

found that often schools link streaming to the policy of publishing league exam tables


pupils triage

those who will pass anyway - highbrow knowledge (e.g. elaborated code) pupils typically middle class

borderline C-D students targeted for extra help

hopeless cases - low brow knowledge (e.g. restricted code) typically WC and black


link between league tables and streaming

school league tables are where the schools publish their exam results
schools need a good league table results to encourage parents to send their children there getting the school more funding
streaming generates a good A-C economy for the league tables
teachers then focus on the borderline C-D grade students giving the extra help to get them a solid C grade to make the school look good.


pro school subcultures

ingratiation: pro-school conformity as in the pro-school subculture, with eagerness to please teachers and win favour with them

Compliance: conformity, but basically for what they can get out of schooling, like exam success, not because they necessarily like or enjoy school


anti - school subcultures

intransigence: troublemakers who are indifferent to school, and who aren't that bothered about the consequences of non-conformity

rebellion: outright rejection of schooling and its values, and involvement in anti-school activity, as in the anti-school subculture


process of joining a subculture

student trued to gain status in school through legitimate means (educational success)

however, despite their attempts, WC students are labelled negatively by teaches and are treated accordingly

WC students ten give up trying to succeed through legitimate means. instead, they seek out other students just like them

students find similar minded people who underachieve

once students have affiliated with their new group they try to gain status in new ways by inverting the norms and values of education

as a result WC studies find new deviant means of gaining status , an a ti school subculture is formed

now part of the anti school group they are further labelled as negative confirming the teachers original view of them pushing the student further into their subculture


Colin Lacey (1970)

yes concepts of differentiation and procrastination to explain how pupil subcultures emerge



the process of teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their ability and streaming them accordingly



student responses to differentiation by moving to either end of the opposite 'poles' in terms pf behaviour and attitude


pro school values

middle class
high stream
committed to norms and values of the school
gains status through academic success


anti school values

working class
low stream
low self esteem from school status
leads to the self fulfilling prophecy and working class underachievement
delinquent sub cultures
gains status from alternative means from the subculture


Furlong (1984)

pupil are not committed to any one response but may move between different types of responses acting differently in lessons with different teachers


class identity and self exclusion

despite the class inequalities in education, many more WC young people now go onto university. But he clash between WC identity and the habitus of higher education is a barrier to success
this habitus is partly due to a process of self exclusion


Sarah Evans (2009)

studied a group of 21 WC girls from South London Comprehensive studying for their a-levels
Evans found they were reluctant to apply to elite universities and the few who did felt a sense of hidden barriers and not fitting in

Evans also found that the girls had a strong attachment to their locality for example only 4 out of 21 intended to move away from home to study


Bourdieu (1984)

many WC people think of places like oxbridge as being 'not for the likes of us' this feeling comes from their habitus

the school has a middle class habitus, giving the middle class students an advantage, while WC culture is regarded as inferior


As Real et al. (2005)

point out self exclusion from elite or distant universities narrows the options of many WC pupils and limits their success



refers to the 'dispositions' or learned, taken for granted ways of thinking, being and acting that are shown by a particular social class

a group habitus is formed as a response to its position in the class structure

the middle class can define its habitus as superior and to impose it on the the education system


symbolic capital

pupils who have bee socialised at home into middle class tastes and preferences gain 'symbolic capital'/ status and recognition from the school

deemed to have worth/value


symbolic violence

schools devalue the WC habitus so that WC pupils tastes are deemed tasteless and worthless
Bourdieu calls this the withholding of symbolic capital which is capital violence

by defining the WC and there tastes as inferior, symbolic violence reproduces the class structure and keeps lower classes 'in their place'


'nike' identities

pupils conscious that society and school look down upon them. this symbolic violence led them to seek alternative ways of creating self worth, status and value
constructed meaningful class identities by investing heavily in 'styles' esp by consuming brands like nike

the right appearance earned symbolic capital and approval from peer groups and brought safety from bullying

but led to conflict with the schools dress code - pupils who adapted 'street styles' risked being labeled a rebel



not for people 'like us', but for richer, posher, cleverer people and they wouldn't fit in
unaffordable and risky investment



not suit this preferred lifestyle/ habitus


WC identity and educational success
Nicola Ingram (2009)

did a study of 2 groups f WC catholic boys from the same highly deprived area in Belfast
one group had passed their 11 plus exam and gone to grammar school while the other group had failed and gone to a local secondary school
this grammar school had a strongly MC habitus of high expectation and high academic achievement while the secondary school had low expectations of their underachieving pupils

Ingram found that having a WC identity was inseparable from belonging to a WC locality