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Flashcards in policy Deck (31)
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1870 Education Act

before 1833 the state spent no public money on education
the poor were educated by the church
state schooling became compulsory for children aged 13


1944 Education Act/ Butler Act

free state education for all from 5-15 in the format of the tripardtite system
11+ exam to compete for places in grammer schools
those who failed (generally wc) went to secondary modern
legitimising and reproducing class inequality


comprehensive system

introduced to remove class inequality and introduce the idea of a meritocracy


AO3 comprehensive system

doesn't promote equality because wc kid s will go to wc schools that underachieve



argues only some parents benefit from the policies of marketisation


privileged skilled choosers
the myth of parentocracy

professional mc parents who use their economic and cultural capital to gain educational capital for their children
these parents understand the admissions procedures and have time to visit schools
they have skills to research into the options available


semi-skilled choosers

parents who are mainly wc and ambitious for their children
however lack cultural capital and find it difficult to make sense of the education market often relying on other opinions
may feel frustration at not being able to access the school system or understand the procedures


disconnected local choosers

wc parents whose choices were restricted by there lack of economic and cultural capital
they find it difficult to understand school admissions procedures and are less confident when dealing with schools
distance and travel costs also play a restriction on their choice of school


conservative policy changes 2010

free schools/ academies
pupil premium
increase in university fees


increase in university fees

increase from £3000 to £9000 a year
aiming to promote marketisation through increased profit making
impacts wc students who might be put off higher education
rather than fatalistic attitudes pitting them off its the fear of debt



performance measure not compulsory
involves students selecting core subjects along with a humanity and language for their GCSEs
aims to promote a more 'academic' stream of education


pupil premium

certain amount of money that schools receive for each pupil from a disadvantaged background
aims to close the gap between them and their peers
schools also receive money for each adopted pupil this money is meant to be used to bridge the gap
but the policy has been questioned as theres no clarity as to where this move is acc spent


free schools/ academies 2010

moved funding from local authorities to central government
giving more control over admissions
sometimes run by a private business (privatisation)
academies help promote marketisation gives schools more freedom
removes 'one size fits all' approach
don't have to follow national curriculum


AO3 academies 2010

feeds into cream skimming and silt shifting as they have more control over admissions trying to boost the ideal pupil in schools
disadvantages wc and ethnic minority students


EMA (educational maintenance allowance) 1990s

payments tot students from low income backgrounds to encourage them to stay on in education after the age of 16
aimed to promote the wc staying on in education to promote more equality


AO3 of the EMA 1990s

marxists would criticise this as small payments do not change the social position of the wc and does little t tackle the root issues


sure start 1990s

these centres provided education, training and parental access to resources
established in more deprived areas
aimed to give children the best possible start in life through improvement of childcare, early education, health and family support
emphasis on outreach and community development


National Literacy Strategy 1990s

increased literacy and numeracy hours within schools and more training on delivering literacy within schools


AS/A2 1990s

splitting the AS and A2 exams meant that students would complete an exam at the end of each year to split up there learning


Education Action Zones 1990s

introduced by Blairs labour government
aimed to bring groups of schools, parents, community groups and businesses together and to attract sponsorship and investment from the private sector


AO3 of Education Action Zones 1990s

due to profit making they formed part of the marketisation agenda of the 1980s
however the action was targeted at areas with high levels of deprivation thus seeking to promote equality for disadvantaged groups


Academies 1990s

status given to most underachieving schools
aimed to revamp schools image to give them a fresh start
they were taken away from local authority control and often funded by private companies


Thatchers conservative governments 1988 Education Reform Act

national curriculum
league tables
formula funding


national curriculum

everyone learns the same content
all students must take maths english and science for GCSEs
britishness and shared identity promoted in history and citizenship
ethnic minority groups not engage in lessons due to ethnocentric curriculum
promotes gender equality - no gendered subject choices


league tables

marketing tool to show position of school based on student results
educational triage - teachers focus on students ore likely to pass and give up on 'hopeless cases'


formula funding

a certain amount of money a school gets for every student
underfunded schools more likely to underachieve


Pollack (2004)

notes this flow of personnel allows companies to buy 'insider knowledge' to help with contracts aswell as side-stepping local authority democracy
puts focus on generating money rather than on the educational of the pupils



the transfer of public assets e.g schools to private companies
private companies are involved in building schools, providing supply teachers, work-based learning, careers advice and off stead inspection services and even run-in entire local education authorities



company that sells revision materials etc also involved in the government pushing educational policies
these policies will benefit them not schools and make schools spend more money with them
e.g changing the exam spec, schools need past papers and regions guides that they will provide



marketisation led to parentocracy
gave power to parents and encouraged diversity and choice