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1

if one level of IV is assigned via randomization

considered experimental -- as consumer be keenly aware of which level is randomized -- e.g., randomized on tx but not gender -- 2 x 2 factorial design

2

any time you adminster the same measure to the same participants (to collect data on DV) at a later date (at any point -- could be 5 minutes apart)

Repeated measures design

3

subsumed within repeated measures -- generally speaking, typically more than 20 observations (e.g., clinical trials) no longer need 20 for statisical methods to hold (so need at least 10) -- tend to occur in fixed intervals depends on what you're collecting data on -- logorythmic data collection - time period continues to get bigger (exponentially) between observations

Time-series design

4

Time-series design

subsumed within repeated measures -- generally speaking, typically more than 20 observations (e.g., clinical trials) no longer need 20 for statisical methods to hold (so need at least 10) -- tend to occur in fixed intervals depends on what you're collecting data on -- logorythmic data collection - time period continues to get bigger (exponentially) between observations

5

Difference between repeated measures and time series design

number of observations (collected data on DVs)

6

In non-equivalent group design one should

control with pre-test

7

Threats that concern ______ relate to statistical conclusion validity

integrity of treatment itself

8

Threats that concern ______ relate to internal validity

making comparisons between tx groups

9

What does randomization do?

"Ensure" that participant groups are equal prior to treatment

10

What does randomization not do?

Ensure anything that happens after treatment -- possibility of history effects

11

Important issues to look for in time series designs

* change in intercept (level)
* slope
* stability of effect (continuous or discontinuous effect)
* delayed vs immediate effect (instantaneous vs delayed -- when you see effects taking place)


12

Standard error is based on

sample of samples

13

What type of research is meta-analysis?

Ex-post facto

14

Assessment is defined as

* Overarching, sampling behavior
* In contrast to research when we assess people

15

Measurement is defined as

* Establishing quantitative rules for assigning numbers to represent attributes of persons
* Attributes of people, not to people
* Distinction between observations and inferences
* Must think: How representative is this of behaviors outside of this context?



16

Test, scales, and measures are defined as

Objective, quantitative measurement using standardized procedures; psychometric properties of scores essential

17

What are Rating protocols?

Taxonomies, classification and rating systems done by an observer (usually)

18

What is Evaluation?

Assessing the congruency between what is expected and actually occurs (formal to informal, may be quantitative) Chen, 1990

19

What is Clinical assessment?

Less formal, typically not fully standardized or quantitative

20

What is a Scale?

* often used interchangeably (not always) with measure, questionnaire or test
* Some say questionnaire is less formal
* Assumed to be assessing a single construct or domain

21

What is a construct?

Trait, domain, ability, latent variable, theta 0

22

What is theta?

Item Response Theory (IRT) uses this to talk about the construct itself -- latent variable

23

What are the differing types of item responses?

1. Dichotomous
2. Polytomuos
3. Graded responses

24

What are dichotomous item responses?

Two levels (true or false, yes or no, etc.)

25

What are polytomous item responses?

Three or more levels, often ordered but not always

26

What are graded item responses?

More than 2 ordered response options
All graded responses are polytomous but not all polytomous items are graded items

27

What is Classical Test Theory (CTT)?

* Total sums of squares partitioned into true score variance vs error score variance
* Partitioning variance

28

What is Modern Test Theory = Item Response Theory (IRT)?

Has to do with probability
* What's the probability that someone will respond in a certain way?
* Not only assigning where the individual is on the construct

29

What is Standard Error of Measurement (SEM or SEm) ?

* Estimate of extent to which an observed score deviates from true score
* Create confidence interval
* Probability that an individual's true score lies within a range

30

What is reliability?

* How consistently does a scale measure what it is designed to measure?