Flashcards in Class Notes Deck (72)

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1

## if one level of IV is assigned via randomization

### considered experimental -- as consumer be keenly aware of which level is randomized -- e.g., randomized on tx but not gender -- 2 x 2 factorial design

2

## any time you adminster the same measure to the same participants (to collect data on DV) at a later date (at any point -- could be 5 minutes apart)

### Repeated measures design

3

## subsumed within repeated measures -- generally speaking, typically more than 20 observations (e.g., clinical trials) no longer need 20 for statisical methods to hold (so need at least 10) -- tend to occur in fixed intervals depends on what you're collecting data on -- logorythmic data collection - time period continues to get bigger (exponentially) between observations

### Time-series design

4

## Time-series design

5

## Difference between repeated measures and time series design

### number of observations (collected data on DVs)

6

## In non-equivalent group design one should

### control with pre-test

7

## Threats that concern ______ relate to statistical conclusion validity

### integrity of treatment itself

8

## Threats that concern ______ relate to internal validity

### making comparisons between tx groups

9

## What does randomization do?

### "Ensure" that participant groups are equal prior to treatment

10

## What does randomization not do?

### Ensure anything that happens after treatment -- possibility of history effects

11

## Important issues to look for in time series designs

###
* change in intercept (level)

* slope

* stability of effect (continuous or discontinuous effect)

* delayed vs immediate effect (instantaneous vs delayed -- when you see effects taking place)

12

## Standard error is based on

### sample of samples

13

## What type of research is meta-analysis?

### Ex-post facto

14

## Assessment is defined as

###
* Overarching, sampling behavior

* In contrast to research when we assess people

15

## Measurement is defined as

###
* Establishing quantitative rules for assigning numbers to represent attributes of persons

* Attributes of people, not to people

* Distinction between observations and inferences

* Must think: How representative is this of behaviors outside of this context?

16

## Test, scales, and measures are defined as

### Objective, quantitative measurement using standardized procedures; psychometric properties of scores essential

17

## What are Rating protocols?

###
Taxonomies, classification and rating systems done by an observer (usually)

18

## What is Evaluation?

### Assessing the congruency between what is expected and actually occurs (formal to informal, may be quantitative) Chen, 1990

19

## What is Clinical assessment?

### Less formal, typically not fully standardized or quantitative

20

## What is a Scale?

###
* often used interchangeably (not always) with measure, questionnaire or test

* Some say questionnaire is less formal

* Assumed to be assessing a single construct or domain

21

## What is a construct?

### Trait, domain, ability, latent variable, theta 0

22

## What is theta?

### Item Response Theory (IRT) uses this to talk about the construct itself -- latent variable

23

## What are the differing types of item responses?

###
1. Dichotomous

2. Polytomuos

3. Graded responses

24

## What are dichotomous item responses?

### Two levels (true or false, yes or no, etc.)

25

## What are polytomous item responses?

### Three or more levels, often ordered but not always

26

## What are graded item responses?

###
More than 2 ordered response options

All graded responses are polytomous but not all polytomous items are graded items

27

## What is Classical Test Theory (CTT)?

###
* Total sums of squares partitioned into true score variance vs error score variance

* Partitioning variance

28

## What is Modern Test Theory = Item Response Theory (IRT)?

###
Has to do with probability

* What's the probability that someone will respond in a certain way?

* Not only assigning where the individual is on the construct

29

## What is Standard Error of Measurement (SEM or SEm) ?

###
* Estimate of extent to which an observed score deviates from true score

* Create confidence interval

* Probability that an individual's true score lies within a range

30