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Flashcards in Classical Conditioning Deck (102):
1

What is appetitive conditioning?

A conditioning procedure where the unconditioned stimulus is an event that an organism approaches or seeks out.

2

What is aversive conditioning?

A conditioning procedure where the unconditioned stimulus is an event that an organism avoids.

3

What is backward conditioning?

A conditioning procedure where the onset of the neutral stimulus follows the onset of the unconditioned stimulus.

4

What is classical conditioning?

A process whereby one stimulus that does not elicit a certain response is associated with a second stimulus that does, resulting in the first stimulus eliciting the same response.

5

What is the conditioned response?

The response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus.

6

What is the conditioned stimulus?

Any stimulus that comes to elicit a response because it has been associated with an unconditioned stimulus.

7

What is delayed conditioning?

A conditioning procedure where the onset of the neutral stimulus precedes the onset of the unconditioned stimulus, and the two stimuli overlap.

8

Define dishabituation.

The reapparance of a habituated response to a stimulus following the presentation of another, seemingly irrelevant novel stimulus.

9

What is excitatory conditioning?

A conditioning procedure where the neutral stimulus is associated with the presentation of an unconditioned stimulus.

10

What is a fixed action pattern?

A fixed sequence of responses elicited by a specific stimulus.

11

Define flexion response.

The automatic response of jerking your hand or foot away from a hot or sharp object.

12

What is habituation?

A decrease in the strength of an elicited behaviour following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus.

13

What is inhibitory conditioning?

A conditioning procedure where the neutral stimulus is associated with the absence or removal of a unconditioned stimulus.

14

Define opponent-process theory.

A theory proposing that an emotional event elicits two competing processes.

15

Name the two processes in opponent-process theory.

Primary process or a-process, and opponent process or b-process.

16

In opponent-process theory, which process is directly elicited by the event?

The primary process.

17

What does the opponent process do in opponent-process theory?

It is elicited by the a-process and serves to counteract it.

18

What is the orienting response?

The automatic positioning of yourself to facilitate attending to a stimulus.

19

Define reflex.

A relatively simple, involuntary response to a stimulus.

20

What is the reflex arc?

A neural structure that underlies many reflexes and consists of a sensory neuron, an interneuron, and a motor neuron.

21

Define sensitisation.

An increase in the strength of an elicited response following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus.

22

What is a sign stimulus (or releaser)?

A specific stimulus that elicits a fixed action pattern.

23

What is simultaneous conditioning?

A conditioning procedure where the onset of the NS and the onset of the unconditioned stimulus are simultaneous.

24

Define trace conditioning.

A conditioning procedure where the onset and offset of the neutral stimulus precede the onset of the unconditioned stimulus.

25

What is the unconditioned response?

The response that is naturally elicited by the unconditioned stimulus without any prior learning.

26

What is the unconditioned stimulus?

A stimulus that naturally elicits a response without any prior learning.

27

Define acquisition.

The process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of an neutral stimulus (or conditioned stimulus) with an unconditioned stimulus.

28

Define blocking.

The phenomenon whereby the presence of an established conditioned stimulus interferes with conditioning of a new conditioned stimulus.

29

What is a compound stimulus?

A complex stimulus that consists of the simultaneous presentation of two or more individual stimuli.

30

Define disinhibition.

The sudden recovery of a response during an extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced.

31

What is experimental neurosis?

A experimentally produced disorder where animals exposed to unpredictable events develop neurotic-like symptoms.

32

What is external inhibition?

A decrease in the strength of the conditioned response due to the presentation of a novel stimulus at the same time as the conditioned stimulus.

33

Define extinction.

The process by which a conditioned response can be weakened or eliminated when the conditioned response is repeatedly presented in the absence of the unconditioned response.

34

What is higher-order conditioning?

The process whereby a neutral stimulus that is associated with a conditioned response (rather than an unconditioned stimulus) also becomes a conditioned stimulus.

35

What is latent inhibition?

The phenomenon where a familiar stimulus is more difficult to condition as a conditioned stimulus than is an unfamiliar stimulus.

36

What is occasion setting?

A procedure in which a stimulus (known as an occasion setter) signals that a conditioned stimulus is likely to be followed by the unconditioned stimulus with which it is associated.

37

Define overshadowing.

The phenomenon whereby the most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a conditioned stimulus and therefore interferes with conditioning of the least salient member.

38

Define pseudoconditioning.

A situation in which an elicited response that appears to be a conditioned response is actually the result of sensitisation rather than conditioning.

39

What is semantic generalisation?

The generalisation of the conditioned response to verbal stimuli that are similar in meaning to the conditioned stimulus.

40

What is sensory preconditioning?

Where one stimulus is conditioned as a conditioned stimulus, another stimulus which which it was previously associated can also become a conditioned stimulus.

41

What is spontaneous recovery?

The reappearance of a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus following a rest period after extinction.

42

What is stimulus discrimination?

The tendency for a response to be elicited more by one stimulus than another.

43

What is stimulus generalisation?

The tendency for a conditioned response to occur in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus.

44

What is temporal conditioning?

A form of classical conditioning where the conditioned stimulus is the passage of time.

45

Define US revaluation.

A process that involves the postconditioning presentation of the unconditioned stimulus at a different level of intensity, thereby altering the strength of response to the previously conditioned conditioned stimulus.

46

What does elicit mean?

Draw out or bring forth.

47

What is an elicited behaviour?

One that is automatically drawn out by a certain stimulus.

48

Name the most basic form of elicited behaviour.

Reflexes.

49

Define the orienting response.

Where we automatically position ourselves to facilitate attending to a stimulus.

50

Give two other names for fixed action patterns.

Modal action patterns and species-specific behaviours.

51

Why are fixed action patterns sometimes called species-specific behaviours?

Because the action patterns are unique to certain species.

52

The repeated presentation of an eliciting stimulus can alter the ___ of the elicited behaviour.

Strength.

53

When do the effects of habituation and sensitisation normally disappear?

When the stimulus is not presented for a period of time.

54

What occurs in long-term habituation?

The response slowly decreases as a result of repeated stimulation, and the ability to respond to the stimulus then slowly recovers in the absence of repeated stimulation.

55

What occurs in short-term habituation?

The response quickly decreases as a result of repeated stimulation and the ability to respond to the stimulus quickly recovers in the absence of stimulation.

56

When does long-term habituation tend to occur?

When presentations of the stimulus are widely spaced.

57

When does short-term habituation occur?

When presentations of the stimulus are continuous or narrowly spaced.

58

What can repeated sessions of short-term habituation, spread out over time, lead to?

Long-term habituation.

59

How is habituation different from sensitisation, in regards to specificity.

Sensitisation often generalises to other stimuli, while habituation is more stimulus specific, to the extent that even small changes in the stimulus may result in the reappearance of the response.

60

What is the Coolidge effect?

The enhanced sexual arousal displayed by males of a species when presented with different sexual partners as opposed to the same sexual partner to whom it has habituated.

61

Why does repeated exposure to certain stimuli sometimes result in habituation and sometimes in sensitisation? (2)

The intensity of the eliciting stimulus, and the adaptive significance of the stimulus.

62

What does repeated exposure to a low-intensity stimulus tend to result in?

Habituation.

63

What does repeated exposure to a high-intensity stimulus tend to result in?

Sensitisation.

64

Who developed opponent-process theory?

Solomon.

65

What did Solomon develop?

Opponent-process theory.

66

What does the a-process strongly correlate with?

The presence of the emotional event.

67

The b-process is ___ to increase and slow to ___.

Slow, decrease.

68

What accounts for why our emotional response to an event is often strongest at the outset?

The slow build-up of the b-process.

69

With repeated presentations of the emotional event, what happens to the b-process?

It increases in strength and duration.

70

How is the opponent-process theory implicated in revictimisation?

The person becomes hooked on the powerful feelings of pleasure that occur during the honeymoon period of forgiveness following an intense period of abuse.

71

What is revictimisation?

Repeatedly becoming involved in abusive relationships.

72

Give another name for classical conditioning.

Pavlovian conditioning.

73

Behaviour analysts who follow Skinner's approach to behaviourism often refer to classical conditioning as:

Respondent conditioning.

74

Each pairing of the neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus during training is called a:

Conditioning trial.

75

What are some differences between the unconditioned response and the conditioned response?

The conditioned response is usually weaker than the unconditioned response.

76

Who developed the conditioned suppression or conditioned emotional response paradigm?

Estes and Skinner.

77

What did Estes and Skinner develop?

The conditioned suppression or conditioned emotional response paradigm.

78

What is the suppression ratio?

The number of responses emitted during the conditioned stimulus period divided by the number of responses emitted during the conditioned stimulus period and the same length period immediately preceding the conditioned stimulus.

79

In conditioned suppression, a ___ ratio indicates less responding, and less responding indicates ___ suppression.

Lower, greater.

80

What is the conditioned response in the conditioned emotional response paradigm?

The covert response of fear, not the reduction in lever pressing.

81

What is the result of inhibitory conditioning?

The conditioned stimulus comes to inhibit the occurrence of a certain response.

82

What is the interstimulus interval (or ISI)?

The time between the onset of the neutral stimulus and the onset of the unconditioned stimulus.

83

What is the trace interval?

The time between the onset of the neutral stimulus and the onset of the unconditioned stimulus.

84

Why does simultaneous conditioning result in a poor conditioned response?

The neutral stimulus is not a good predictor of the unconditioned stimulus if it occurs at the same time.

85

What is the least effective procedure for conditioning?

Backward conditioning.

86

How can backward conditioning result in inhibitory conditioning?

If a tone sounds before a shock is terminated, then the tone predicts the removal of the aversive stimulus.

87

What is the most effective conditioning method?

Delayed conditioning.

88

The maximum amount of conditioning that can take place in a particular situation is called the ___ of conditioning.

Asymptote.

89

The asymptote and speed of conditioning are dependent of several factors: (2)

More intense unconditioned stimuli and more intense neutral stimuli produce stronger and more rapid conditioning.

90

The process of extinction is a decrease in the strength of the:

Conditioned response.

91

What happens after extinction when the conditioned stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus?

Rapid reacquisition of the conditioned response.

92

What is the critical factor in semantic generalisation?

Word meaning.

93

What does discrimination training counter?

The tendency for generalisation to occur.

94

How did Pavlov theorise that human neuroses develop?

Prolonged exposure to extreme uncertainty.

95

What do we do in sensory preconditioning to prevent the individual from becoming overly familiar with the stimuli prior to conditioning?

Pair the stimuli only a few times, as familiar stimuli are harder to condition than unfamiliar stimuli.

96

In sensory preconditioning, the procedure is more effective when the stimuli are presented ___ rather than sequentially.

Simultaneously.

97

Problems concerning latent inhibition are evident in people who have:

Schizophrenia.

98

Give two other names for US revaluation.

US inflation or US deflation.

99

US revaluation suggests that conditioning generally involves an association between:

The conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.

100

Pseudoconditioning is a potential problem whenever the US is some type of ___ ___ stimulus.

Emotionally arousing.

101

How do we determine is a response is the result of pseudoconditioning rather than real conditioning?

Present the NS and US separately.

102

What is the conditioned stimulus often similar to?

The unconditioned response.