Flashcards in Extinction and Stimulus Control Deck (40):
Define anticipatory contrast.
The process where the rate of response varies inversely with an upcoming change in the rate of response.
Define behavioural contrast.
A change in the rate of reinforcement on one component of a multiple schedule produces an opposite change in the rate of response on another component.
What is differential reinforcement of other behaviour (DRO)?
Reinforcement of any behaviour other than a target behaviour that is being extinguished.
What is discrimination training?
The differential reinforcement of responding in the presence of one stimulus and not another.
What is the discriminative stimulus for extinction (SΔ)?
A stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement.
What is errorless discrimination training?
A discrimination training procedure that minimises the number of errors and reduces many of the adverse effects associated with discrimination training.
The nonreinforcement of a previously reinforced response, the result of which is a decrease in strength for that response.
What is extinction burst?
A temporary increase in the frequency and intensity of responding when extinction is first implemented.
The process of gradually altering the intensity of a stimulus.
Explain the generalisation gradient.
A graphic description of the strength of responding in the presence of stimuli that are similar to the discriminative stimulus and vary along a continuum.
What is a multiple schedule?
A complex schedule consisting of two or more independent schedules presented in sequence,each resulting in reinforcement and each having a distinctive discriminative stimulus.
What is the negative contrast effect?
The process where an increase in the rate of reinforcement on one component of a multiple schedule produces a decrease in the rate of response on the other component.
What is the partial reinforcement effect?
Behaviour that has been maintained on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement is extinguished more slowly than behaviour on a continuous schedule.
What is the peak shift effect?
Following discrimination training, the peak of a generalisation gradient will shift from the discriminative stimulus to a stimulus that is further removed from the discriminative stimulus for extinction.
What is the positive contrast effect?
The process where a decrease in rate of reinforcement on one component of a multiple schedule produces an increase in the rate of response on the other component.
Define resistance to extinction.
The extent to which responding persists after an extinction procedure has been implemented.
The reappearance during extinction of other behaviours that had once been effective in obtaining reinforcement.
What is spontaneous recovery?
The reappearance of an extinguished response following a rest period after extinction.
What is stimulus control?
The presence of a discriminative stimulus affects the probability of behaviour
What is stimulus discrimination?
The tendency for an operant response to be emitted more in the presence of one stimulus than another.
What is stimulus generalisation?
The tendency for an operant response to be emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to a discriminative stimulus.
What is the procedure of extinction?
The nonreinforcement of a previously reinforced response.
What is the process of extinction?
The resultant decrease in response strength.
Name the six side effects of extinction.
Extinction burst, increase in variability, emotional behaviour, aggression, resurgence, and depression.
Which psychoanalytic concept is resurgence similar to?
Give some factors that contribute to resistance to extinction. (6)
Schedule of reinforcement, history of reinforcement, magnitude of the reinforcer, degree of deprivation, previous experience with extinction, and distinctive signal for extinction.
Are DRO procedures more or less effective than extinction, and why?
More effective, because the target behaviour is weakened both by the lack of reinforcement and the reinforcement of alternative behaviours.
What type of procedure is functional communication training?
Give another name for functional communication training.
Differential reinforcement of functional communication.
What occurs in functional communication training?
The behaviour of clearly and appropriately communicating you desires is differentially reinforced.
More generalisation means less ___, and less generalisation means more ___.
A steep gradient indicates:
Weak generalisation and strong discrimination
A flat gradient indicates:
Strong generalisation and weak discrimination.
Give a drawback of errorless discrimination training.
Discriminations are harder to modify at a later time.
Resistance to extinction is particularly strong when behaviour has been maintained on a:
Variable ratio schedule.
Explain history of reinforcement.
The more reinforcers an individual has received for a behaviour, the more resistant they are to extinction.
What limit for increased resistance to extinction did Furomoto find?
Explain degree of deprivation.
The degree to which an organism is deprived of a reinforcer affects resistance to extinction.
What is the difference between a chain and a multiple schedule?
In a multiple schedule, completion of each component gives food.