Flashcards in Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement Deck (56):
What is an adjusting schedule?
A schedule in which the response requirement changes as a function of the organism's performance while responding for the previous reinforcer.
What is a chained schedule?
A schedule consisting of a sequence of two or more simple schedules, each with its own discriminative stimulus and the last of which results in a terminal reinforcer.
Explain the behavioural bliss point approach.
An organism that has free access to activities will distribute it's behaviour between then to maximise reinforcement.
What is a conjunctive schedule?
A type of complex schedule where the requirements of two or more simple schedules must be met before a reinforcer is delivered.
Explain a continuous reinforcement schedule.
A schedule where each response is reinforced.
What is differential reinforcement of high rates (DRH)?
Reinforcement is given if the organism responds a certain number of times within a time limit; or reinforcement is provided for responding to at a fast rate.
What is differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL)?
Reinforcement is given if the organism waits for a time period in between each reinforcer; or reinforcement is provided for responding at a slow pace.
What is a fixed duration (FD) schedule?
Reinforcement is given if the response is continuous for a fixed period of time.
What is a fixed interval (FI) schedule?
Reinforcement is given for the first response after a fixed period of time.
What is a fixed time (FT) schedule?
Reinforcement is given after a fixed period of time, regardless of the organism's behaviour.
What is a fixed ratio (FR) schedule?
Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses.
Explain the goal gradient effect.
An increase in the strength and/or efficiency of responding as one draws near to the goals.
Define incentive motivation.
The reinforcer is motivating.
What occurs in an intermittent (or partial) reinforcement schedule?
Only some responses are reinforced.
What is a noncontingent schedule of reinforcement?
A schedule where the reinforcer is delivered independently of any response.
Define the Premack principle.
The idea that a high-probability behaviour can be used to reinforce a low-probability behaviour.
What is ratio strain?
A disruption in responding due to an overly demanding response requirement.
What is the response deprivation hypothesis?
A behaviour can be reinforcing when access to the behaviour is restricted, so frequency of the behaviour is less than what is preferred.
What is a response-rate schedule?
Reinforcement relies on the organism's rate of response.
Define schedule of reinforcement.
The response requirement that must be met to obtain reinforcement.
Explain a variable duration (VD) schedule.
Reinforcement is given for continuous performance of a behaviour for a varying period of time.
Explain a variable interval (VI) schedule.
Reinforcement is given for the first response after a varying period of time.
Explain a variable ratio (VR) schedule.
Reinforcement is given after a varying number of responses.
Explain a variable time (VT) schedule.
Reinforcement is given after a varying amount of time, regardless of the organism's behaviour.
Which reinforcement schedule is most like real life?
The intermittent (or partial) reinforcement schedule.
Give the four basic types of intermittent schedules.
Fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval.
What is a steady-state behaviour?
The characteristic response pattern that emerges once the organism has had considerable exposure to the schedule.
Fixed ratio schedules normally produce a:
High rate of response along with a short pause following the attainment of each reinforcer.
What is the postreinforcement pause?
The pause that follow the attainment of a reinforcer in a fixed ratio schedule.
Higher ratio requirements produce:
Longer postreinforcement pauses.
Schedules in which the reinforcer is easily obtained are said to be very:
Dense or rich.
Schedules where a reinforcer is difficult to obtain are called:
Variable ratio schedules produce a:
High and steady rate of response, often with little or no postreinforcement pause.
What real-life events are variable ratio schedules associated with?
Maladaptive behaviours, like gambling.
What do fixed interval schedules produce?
A scalloped pattern of responding, consisting of a postreinforcement pause followed by a gradually increasing rate of response as the interval draws to a close.
Variable interval schedules produce a:
Moderate, steady rate of response, often with little or no postreinforcement pause.
Which two intermittent schedules produce a higher rate of response?
Fixed ratio and variable ratio.
On a duration schedule, reinforcement is contingent on:
Performing a behaviour continuously throughout a period of time.
What does differential reinforcement mean?
One type of response is reinforced, and another is not.
How is the DRH a form of differential reinforcement?
Reinforcement is given for a high rate of response and not a low one.
How is a differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) different from a fixed interval schedule?
In a DRL, responses that occur in the interval have an adverse effect, because they prevent reinforcement from occurring.
Explain differential reinforcement of paced responding (DRP).
Reinforcement is contingent on emitting a series of responses at a set rate.
What happens if a noncontigent schedule of reinforcement in superimposed on a contingent schedule?
Rate of response on the response-dependent schedule will decrease.
What does noncontingent reinforcement provide empirical evidence for?
Rogers' theory of unconditional positive regard.
What is a complex schedule of reinforcement?
A combination of two or more simple schedules.
How does a chained schedule differ from a conjunctive schedule?
The two component schedules must be completed in a particular order, which is not a requirement of a conjunctive schedule.
What is the most efficient way to establish responding on a chained schedule?
Train the final link first and the initial link last.
What is the process of training the final link first and the initial link last called in reference to chained schedules?
What two things are the basic means by which circus and marine animals are trained to perform?
Shaping and chaining.
Who came up with drive reduction theory?
What is the Premack principle based on?
The idea that reinforcers can often be viewed as behaviours, rather than stimuli.
When we view reinforcers as behaviours rather than stimuli, then the process of reinforcement can be conceptualised as a sequence of two behaviours:
The behaviour being reinforced, and the behaviour that is the reinforcer.
According to the response deprivation hypothesis, what is the preferred level of activity?
The baseline level of occurrence when the animal can freely engage in that activity.
Explain how the response deprivation approach explains why contingencies of reinforcement are effective.
The organism is confronted with the possibility of a response falling below its baseline level.
When is a continuous schedule of reinforcement most useful?
When a behaviour is first being shaped or strengthened.