Classical Roman Medicine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Classical Roman Medicine Deck (27):
1

Imhotep

ancestor of modern physicians - polymath

2

Georg Ebers papyrus

scroll - most important and oldest surviving medical text - covered many diseases and many drugs

3

Greeks/Mycenaeans

traded with Egypt - influenced by them?

4

Asclepius

son of Apollo - blameless physician in Iliad - medical symbol

5

Greek Diseases

epilepsy, amenorrhea, puerperal fever, dysentery, malaria, tuberculosis, varicella, diphtheria

6

Athenian plague

killed thousands
came from Egypt?
cost Athens war with Sparta

7

iatroi

part time healers

8

Asclepiads

claimed ancestry to Asclepius (Hippocrates was one)

9

Asclepions

temples of healing similar to hospitals run by priests
abatons for pilgrims (place for rest)

10

Epidouros

most celebrated asclepion in antiquity

11

Cos

birthplace of Hippocrates

12

Hippocrates

"Father of Medicine" in Western tradition
mentioned by Plato & Aristotle
believed in professionalism, discipline, rigorous practice, careful observation & records
first to describe many diseases and medical conditions
practitioners were to be clean, calm, serious, and honest

13

Corpus Hippocraticum

established medicine as an art, science, and profession
many contributors
emphasize pt not illness - foundation of Western medicine
rejects idea that Gods cause disease
facts over dogma - body function, health, and disease rationally explained
observation over theory
expectative therapy (not active intervention)
based on external anatomy
body functions compared to external world

14

primum non nocere

Hippocrates primary tenet
first do no harm
passed down orally

15

Hippocratic System

Health is equilibrium
Empedoclean elements (fire, earth, air, water)
4 humors
patient oriented
regimen not drugs
emphasis on prognosis
expectative therapy (healing power of nature)
no heroic interventions (surgery)

16

Humors

yellow bile - summer dysentery and vomiting
phlegm - winter colds and epilepsy
blood - associated with life/spring - venisection
black bile - autumn and dying of nature - depressed

17

regimen

not using drugs
proper diet, sleep, exercise

18

prognosis

what's going to happen to this person

19

expectative therapy

healing power of nature
nothing we can do for you

20

Alexandria

world center for education
most respected medical center

21

Herophilus

Greek founder of Alexandrian medical school
quoted by Galen
dissected human cadavers - internal organs, duodenum, prostate, brain, nerves
believed nerves caused motion
arteries contained blood
studied pulse

22

Erasistratus

helped found Alexandrian medical school
called the body a machine
described valves of heart
differentiated sensory and motor nerves linking to the brain
believed brain was the seat of intelligence
heart functioned as pump
denied teleology

23

medici

latin for physicians who were uneducated and served wealthy, poor, soldier

24

valentudinaria

form of hospital by army and wealthy estates
patients might stay here

25

Galen

famous and fashionable
central figure in traditional western medicine
huge volume of writings
very opinionated
got much wrong - based on animal anatomy - supported Hippocratic model
transformed medicine with science - observation & recordings
Galenism - ultimate authority
trust from pt - bedside manner, explanations, prognosis
says he perfected Hippocrates
rete mirable in the human brain
thyroid cartilage based on pigs
liver having 5 lobes
pores in cardiac septum
venous and arterial systems separate
arteries had a pulse
pneyma - mix of air and blood
regimen - some surgery
advocate of venisection
mind body link

26

rete mirable

structure in human brain that doesn't exist

27

pneuma

mix of air and blood to make a vital spirit