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Flashcards in Clin med 5 final Deck (193):
0

what is valve stenosis

murmur due to velocity of blood through stenotic valve

1

what can dead worms cause

pulmonary thrombosis and hypertension

2

HARD in cats

heartworm assosiated respiratory disease

3

what can heartworm disease result in

right sided heart failure

4

how do you kill microfilaria in dogs

ivermectin

5

neoplasmic cardiac disease

hemangiosarcoma

6

what is common in aortic and pulmonic valves

valve stenosis

7

cat test for adult hw

antigen and antibody

8

what are cough, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, weakness, and syncope symptoms of

cardiac disease

9

how do you kill adult hw in dogs

immiticide

10

who commonly has DCM

old age dogs (doberman)

11

dog test for adult hw

antigen

12

when should a dog be tested for hw

6 months old, missed dose, seasonally

13

what do left sided heart failure symptoms relate to

fluid buildup in respiratory system

14

what does endocarditis usually affect

mitral valve

15

most common patellar luxation

medial

16

what is hypertension caused by

renal disease

17

clinical signs of left sided heart failure

pulmonary edema, cough, crackles

18

how long is the heartworm life cycle

6 months

19

when should heartworm prevention be started

6-8 weeks

20

in hip dysplasia, what does the femoral head move along

acetabulum

21

valve stenosis carriers

large breeds

22

what side of heart failure is most common

left sided

23

what is the most effective DJD surgical tx

total hip replacement

24

what do right sided heart failure symptoms relate to

fluid buildup in the body (plural effusion)

25

how do you kill microfilaria in cats

microfilaricide

26

what can cause DCM in cats

taurine deficiency

27

what is the electrical impulse path

SA, AV, bundle of his, purkinje fibers

28

infectious cardiac disease

endocarditis

29

DJD aka

osteoarthritis

30

dogs predisposed to bone tumors

rottweiler, greyhound, males 7 years or older

31

cause of panosteitis

unknown; virus suspected

32

4 parts of the musculoskeletal system

bones, muscle, joints, nerves

33

CCl surgery recovery

4 weeks bed rest
4 weeks controlled exercise
+/- bandage

34

overstretched muscle without swelling

strain

35

what results in DJD

hip dysplasia

36

who is osteochondrosis dissecans common in

3-18 mo old dogs and large breed animals

37

injury or tear to this ligament is the most common cause of acute hind limb lameness in large breed dogs

cranial cruciate ligament

38

what DJD creates a false joint and is the main reason to alleviate pain

femoral head ostectomy

39

symptoms include megaesophagus, voice change, dilated pupils, weak facial muscles

myasthenia gravis

40

who is ununited anconeal process common in

German Shepard Dog

41

what is the best option of CCL surgery

TPLO-tibial plateau leveling osteotomy

42

who is cranial cruciate ligament rare in

cats

43

what 3 views are required for Penn Hip radiograph

distraction view, compression view, ventrodorsal hip extended view

44

where is a bone tumor mainly located

away from the elbow, near the knee

45

who is osteoarthritis most common in

older dogs

46

what are the 2 common types of CCL and who has them

acute-young athletic dogs
chronic-old overweight dogs

47

CCL surgery concerns

opposite leg affected in 1 year and DJD will happen

48

most common disease of MS system

obesity

49

what does declaw surgery remove

claw and 3rd phalanx

50

what is masticatory muscle myositis

immune-mediated myoopathy

51

most common bone tumor in dogs and cats

osteosarcoma 85-90%

52

how is DJD prevented

responsible breeding

53

DJD drug treatment

NSAIDS and tramadol

54

orthopedic foundation for animals radiograph positioning

ventrodorsal

55

what does the tensilon test check for

myasthenia gravis

56

what are the most frequently affected bones of panosteitis

humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia

57

what is the goal of CCL surgery

stabilize joint and minimize DJD

58

when does cranial cruciate ligament occur

during hyperextension

59

most important DJD treatment

weight loss

60

where is osteoarthritis most commonly found

hips

61

most common OCD joint

shoulder

62

what is osteochondrosis dissecans caused by

failure of cartilage to mature into bone

63

twisted joint with partial rupture of ligaents and possible damage to blood vessels, muscles, tendons, and nerves

sprain

64

how is wobbler syndrome treated

medically or surgical

65

when does panosteitis start

6-8 months

66

panosteitis aka

growing pain

67

what virus causes rabies

rhabdovirus

68

what does proprioception test (4)

knuckling, hopping, wheelbarrowing, walking coordination

69

what are the 2 types of deafness

conductive and neural

70

what part of the brain controls anger

cerebrum

71

what function does the vestibular system have (2)

balance and proprioception

72

what are cluster seizures

multiple seizures in a short time frame

73

what medications can be used to treat cognitive dysfunction

vitamins and anipryl(selegiine)

74

what is the most common cause of human exposure to rabies

bats

75

what cranial nerves does menace test

2 & 7

76

with a spinal cord injury from C1-T2 what is affected

front and rear legs

77

what is type I IVDD

acute injury

78

when are seizures considered an emergency

continued for more than 5-10 min. or repeated clusters

79

name 2 causes of encephalitis

rabies and distemper

80

why do we do a neuro exam

localize lesion, diagnosis, prognosis

81

human bite with non vaccinated animal

euthanazia

82

out of date animal is bitten by a rabid animal

euthanized or 180 day quarantine

83

what is rabies incubation period

3-8 weeks; up to 6 months

84

what cranial nerves does gag reflex test

9 & 10

85

what should be done with a biter who is up to date on rabies vaccine

10 day quarantine

86

where is peripheral nerve disease commonly found

brachial plexus and caudal cervical nerve roots

87

how long can a drug take to reach adequate levels in the bloodstream

7-10 days

88

what is the most common brain tumor in dogs and cats

maningioma

89

how soon do rabis symptoms usually occur in humans

30-50 days

90

what are the 2 main parts of the nervous system

central and peripheral

91

how are drug levels monitored

bloodwork, liver enzymes, diagnostic lab

92

with a spinal cord injury from S1-S3 what is affected

sciatic nerve and perineum

93

what is the most common cause of rabies in domestic animals on the east coast

raccoons

94

how do you treat discospondylitis

long term ABX and pain meds

95

what cranial nerves does oculo-vestibular

3, 4, 6, & 8

96

what is the most common cause of seizures in dogs

ideopathic epilepsy

97

what is the most common type of epilepsy

idiopathic/primary

98

what function does the brainstem have (2)

mental status, body function

99

what drug should not be used in seizure patients

acepromazine

100

what can missed doses of phenobarbitol lead to

seizures

101

how soon does death occur with rabies

within 10 days

102

name 2 long term seizure medications

potassium bromide and phenobarbitol

103

what should be done with a biter whos rabies vaccine is outdated

euthanized or (discuraged) 10 day quarantine

104

how is IVDD treated

medically or surgical

105

what is status epilepticus

actively seizing

106

what is the general prognosis for vestibular disease

good

107

with IVDD what function will be lost first

motor before secondary

108

how soon does death occur in humans exposed to rabies

within 3-20 days of symptoms

109

what is the medical treatment of hydrocephalus

feurosimide or manitol

110

what cranial nerves does PLR test

2 & 3

111

who is most likely to get wobbler syndrome

large breeds- Doberman and Great Dane; horses

112

with a spinal cord injury from T3-L3 what is affected

rear legs

113

what type of disease is distemper

viral

114

what cranial nerves does corneal reflex test

5 & 7

115

what is cerebellar hypoplasia linked to

panleukopenia in cats

116

human bite with vaccinated animal

10 day quarantine without vaccine

117

what do embolus symptoms depend on

location

118

what is a common neurologic disease in older dogs

brain tumor

119

up to date animal is bitten by a rabid animal

law requires a 90 day quarantine

120

what are the 2 types of IVDD

type I and type II

121

what function does the cerebellum have (2)

coordination and balance

122

what is type II IVDD

chronic degeneration

123

with a spinal cord injury from L4-S3 what is affected

rear legs and perineum

124

what does nystagmus, head tilt, circling, ataxia, nausea, and V+ indicate

vestibular disease

125

what do reflexes test

peripheral nerves or spinal cord only

126

where and when is prolactin secreted

anterior pituitary in last third of pregnancy

127

what could be wrong with a dog who has PU/PD, is depressed, anorexic, possible V+ and D+, discharge, and possible shock

pyometra

128

how long is a felines anestrus

2-6 weeks

129

when does diestrus occur

after mating and ovulation

130

how often does a felines estrous cycle occur

every 2-3 weeks until mating or spaying

131

define glactostasis

painful enlargement of gland

132

when is the transition to puppy/kitten food

4-6 weeks

133

foul vulvar discharge, acting sick, and lack of maternal behavior indicates what

metritis

134

how long can stage 1 of pregnancy last

up to 36 hours (6-12 avg)

135

ascending inflammation of the uterus

metritis

136

how is a cleft palate noticed

not growing and nose bubbles

137

what is uterine inertia

tired uterus

138

what is paraphimosis

inability to retract penis

139

how long is brown discharge seen in association with SIPS

12 weeks

140

what is the most common male reproductive disease

prostate disease

141

when should you first breed a dog

2 years in estrus

142

what is unique about animals ovaries

the left ovary is more caudal

143

when are physical changes of pregnancy seen

most obvious in last week

144

what is a omphalocele

protrusion of part of intestine through defect in abdominal wall at umbilicus

145

how long does stage 2 of pregnancy last in cats

4-36 hours

146

what stage of estrus does a pyometra occur

diestrus

147

how do you rule out a pseudocyesis

radiograph or ultrasound

148

what is a serious illness associated with low Ca levels

eclampsia

149

what does weakness, shaking, seizures, collapse, and death indicate

eclampsia

150

what is a pseudocyesis

pseudopregnancy

151

what disease is most common in puppies before puberty and rarely in adults

vaginitis

152

where is progesterone secreted

corpus luteum within ovary

153

BPH

begnine prostate hyperplasia (cause of prostate disease

154

what is a pyometra

hormone dysfunction complicated by ascending infection

155

how often should a kitten be born

20 min

156

how soon after a puppy should the placenta be delivered

5-15 min

157

when should the dewclaw be removed

2-5 days old

158

what is SIPS

subinvolution of placental sites

159

when is metritis seen

after parturition and with retained placenta/fetus

160

when is a dogs first "heat"

6-12 months

161

what tumors are uncommon in males and females

transmissible venereal

162

what color discharge may be seen with delivery and how long can it persist

green/black; 12-24 hours

163

what are the CS. of vaginitis

mimic UTI- vaginal licking, discharge, pollakiuria

164

how long is a felines metestrus

1-2 weeks is not ovulated

165

how long is a felines pseudopregnancy

40 days

166

when should vac. and deworming start

6-8 weeks

167

what is persistent frenulum

congenital problem- remnent fetal tissue

168

define agalactia

no milk production

169

what is a zoonotic bacterial infection

brucellosis

170

when is a male sexually active

10-12 months

171

when is a cats first "heat"

6-9 months old

172

when can a radiograph be used during pregnancy

45 days

173

how long does stage 2 of pregnancy last in dogs

24 hours (3-6 avg)

174

when can bloodwork be used during pregnancy

28 days

175

how often should a puppy be born

20-60 minutes (2 hours MAX)

176

how long is a felines proestrus

not usually seen, 1-3 days

177

how long is a felines estrus

8-10 days

178

how is metritis treated

oxytocin

179

what is blanoposthitis

inflammation of mucosal lining in prepuce

180

when can an ultrasound be used during pregnancy

28 days (earlier in cats)

181

mammary tumor malignancy rate in cats

80-90%

182

how is the ovary attached to the body wall

by a suspensory ligament that must be stretched or torn

183

what does prolapsed vaginal tissue at start of estrus indicate

vaginal hyperplasia

184

where and when is oxytocin secreted

posterior pituitary in last hours of pregnancy

185

when can the pregnancy be palpated

30-36 days (earlier in cats)

186

what is pollakiuria

increased frequency of urination

187

when does eclampsia occur

2-4 weeks after whelping in small dogs

188

how long is a felines full estrous cycle

1-3 weeks

189

how long is a canine or felines gestation

65 days (63 avg.)

190

brucellosis treatment

long term dox

191

how often should a baby nurse

every 2 hours

192

mammary tumor malignancy rate in dogs

50%