Flashcards in Clostridium botulinum and perfringens Deck (17):
What are two ways spores protect DNA from damage?
See slide 4.
Where are Clostidium species normally found?
Almost everywhere in the environment- especially in the soil. This is different from other pathogens we have studied that are found in the intestinal tracts of animals
What kind of toxin does C. botulinum secrete? How does it work in the body?
A neurotoxin. See slide 7 for mechanistic details.
What is the difference between an infection and an intoxication?
See slides 8 and 9.
Most foodborne illnesses caused by C. botulinum are caused by what three neurotoxin types?
A, B, and E
What was notable about foods commonly associated with C. botulinum type E?
Most common C. bot associated with seafood harvested in cold water environments
What are most notable differences between group I and group II C. botulinum?
Neurotoxins produced, growth temperature, pH for inhibition, salt concentration for inhibition, and susceptibility of spores to temperature inactivation (see slide 6 for specifics)
What are three types of diseases associated with C. botulinum?
Foodborne botulinum, infant botulinum, wound botulinum. Do you remember what food is most commonly associated with infant botulinum?
What are four interventions commonly used to prevent C. botulinum growth/sporulation in foods?
Acid, water activity, heat, and chemical additives; see slide 10 for specifics about each of these.
What often needs to occur for C. botulinum to cause issues in high acid foods?
Either there has been insufficient penetration of acid into the food, or the food is contaminated with a spoilage organism (often mold) that raises the pH of the product above 4.6.
What are the 4 features of foods that cause C. botulinum illnesses?
See slide 11
In the garlic-and-oil outbreaks we discussed in class, what were the two reasons C. botulinum was able to grow?
The garlic was covered in oil, creating an anaerobic environment, and the pH was conducive for bacterial growth.
What is meant by an index case?
The first known case of an illness that is part of an outbreak.
What are 4 ways C. perfringens differs from C. botulinum?
Oxygen requirements, doubling time, commonality, and type of disease; see slide 16 for specifics.
How does toxin typing work for C. perfringens, and what type is most common to foodborne illnesses?
See slide 16, and video I posted covering this.
When do Clostridium and other toxin-producing spore formers usually synthesize the toxin?