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Flashcards in CNS infections Deck (17):

What are the most common viral causes of meningitis?

Enteroviruses, Coxsackie, Echo viruses


What are the most common bacterial causes of meningitis in adults and children?

H. influenza type B, Neisseria meningitidis, S. pneumoniae


What 3 bacteria are most common causes of meningitis in children < 3months?

Group B streptococci
E coli


What are the clinical signs of meningitis in adults?

fever, headache, vomitting,
stiff neck, altered mental state (but usually conscious- differs to encephalitis), photophobia, rash, seizures


How do babies present with meningitis

more non-specific: irritable, stop feeding, fever, nausia, bulging fontanelle, altered mental state


What are the characteristics of normal CSF?

Clear appearance
WBCS 2.5mmol/L
Pressure <0.4g/L
NO RBCs, NO bacteria


How is meningitis treated?

3rd gen cephalosporins for adults + penicillin + ? for infants, and steroids (


What fungi and Protozoa can cause meningitis?

Cryptococcus (fungus) and amoeba


Why is CSF often cultured in serum broth?

Resuscitation medium -> rich broth that will support growth of small number of bacteria that may have survived initial empirical treatment


What empirical therapy is used in cases of suspected bacterial meningitis?

Cefotaxime (3rd gen cephalosporin)
Benzyl penicillin


What clinical signs are indicative of N. Meningititis? Meningococcal meningitis?

Fine petechial rash (small bruises)


What are the features of the bacteria N meningititis?

Gram neg diplococci


Why is meningitis caused by strep pneumoniae particularly important to identify?

Increasing resistance to beta lactam a -> may not respond to therapies -> add vancomycin to treatment
Also has highest rates of mortality and sequalae


What are the group B strep? In what group of individuals do they commonly cause meningitis?

Gram pos cocci in chains,Beta haemolytic
Commonly grow in gut and vaginal tract and can be contracted by newborns during birthing


What percentage of women carry group b strep as part of their flora?

25-30% of women


What methods can be used to reduce the incidence of newborn meningitis?

Screen mothers for Group B strep, if found to be carrying the bacteria give them IV penicillin 4 hours before birth. Can also treat baby with IV penicillin.


What is the prognosis of viral meningitis? Is it usually milder or more severe than bacteria?

Milder presentation, disease is usually self limiting and prognosis is good